Ophthalmologic Manifestations in Schizophrenic Patients: A Review of the Literature
Marina Maria Gonzaga Moreira1*, Letícia Brandão Barbosa de Oliveira1, Carlos Eduardo Ximenes da Cunha1, Marina Viegas Moura Rezende Ribeiro2 and Allan Maia Andrade de Souza3
1Medical Intern, Tiradentes University Center, Maceió-Alagoas, Brazil
2Doctor in Health Sciences, Professor of the Tiradentes University Center, Maceió-Alagoas; Specialist in Ophthalmology, Brazil
3Psychotherapist, Professor of the Tiradentes University Center, Maceió-Alagoas; Specialist in Psychiatry, Brazil
*Corresponding Author: Marina Maria Gonzaga Moreira, Medical Intern, Tiradentes University Center, Maceió-Alagoas, Brazil.
April 24, 2022; Published: May 02, 2022
Introduction: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by various psychotic manifestations. The relationship between this disorder and ophthalmologic dysfunctions is well described in the literature. Examples of this are the numerous retinal alterations in schizophrenics and the deficits in visual perception. In addition, chronic use of antipsychotics can lead to several ophthalmologic manifestations.
Objective: To identify and explain the main ophthalmologic manifestations caused by schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment.
Methods: This is an integrative literature review, using papers published in the last 20 years in the LILACS, SCIELO, PUBMED, Psycoinfo, Scopus and Google Schoolar databases. The review was produced in January 2021 using 18 scientific articles.
Results and Discussion: Based on the analysis of the data, the main findings were the changes in the retina, eye movement and visual perception in schizophrenic patients. The effects of antipsychotics on vision were also noted. It was observed that excessive dopaminergic activity generates hypersensitivity to color and compromises synaptic transmission in the retina. Antipsychotics, in chronic use, are able to generate damage and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and elevate intraocular pressure (IOP). Moreover, it was noted characteristic abnormalities in eye movements and visual perception in schizophrenics.
Conclusion: Ophthalmologic involvement is one of the most important features of schizophrenia. Despite the existence of studies that prove the relationship between vision problems and schizophrenia, there is still a need for further research for a better understanding of the ophthalmologic consequences in these patients
Keywords: Schizophrenia; Ophthalmology; Retina; Distortion of Perception; Antipsychotics
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