Targeting of Signal Transduction Pathway Components to Mitigate Selected Ocular Disorders
Najam A Sharif1-7*
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas, USA
2Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA
3Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
4Singapore Eye Research Institute (SERI), Singapore
5Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College of Science and Technology, St. Mary’s Campus, London, UK
6Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore
7Global Alliances and External Research, Ophthalmology Innovation Center, Santen Inc., Emeryville, CA, USA
*Corresponding Author: Najam Sharif, Vice President and Head, Global Alliances and External Research, Ophthalmology Innovation Center, Santen Incorporated, Emeryville, CA, USA.
September 06, 2021; Published: April 04, 2022
Coordinated communication between and within cells forms the basis for life in health and disease of all tissues and organs. Such relaying of information is mediated by neurotransmitters, hormones, bacteria, viruses, steroids and a host of cyto- and chemokines via specific receptors, ion-channels, and transporters located in cellular membranes and on intracellular organelles including the nuclear membrane and within the nucleus itself. Activation of such transmembrane components generates intracellular second messengers such as cAMP, cGMP, inositol phosphates, diacyl glycerol, Ca2+, and gaseous transmitters such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide that modulate activity of cytoplasmic proteins, lipids and other substances via phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, glycation, and acetylation. Additional communication is achieved by modulation of genetic machinery, via transcription factors, various chaperones, and through secretome/exosome-mediated release of growth factors, microRNAs, and via direct transfer of many of the afore-mentioned chemicals between neighboring cells down nanotunnels. Dysfunctions within any component of this signal transduction machinery, whether in excess or deficiency or by mutation, results in some form of disease and thus represent targets for intervention by small molecule drugs, peptides, antibodies, genetic manipulation and/or via cell-replacement therapeutics. A brief outline of some of these elements will be discussed.
Keywords: Receptors; Signal Transduction; Ion-channels; GPCRs; Enzyme; Agonist; Antagonist; Inhibitor
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