Acta Scientific Ophthalmology (ISSN: 2582-3191)

Research Article Volume 3 Issue 10

Does Hypovitaminosis A in Mothers Cause Congenital Malformation of the Eye?

Shreya Shah, Mehul Shah*, Ashit Desai, Mrugesha Vaghela and Deeksha Thorat

Drashti Netralaya, Dahod, Gujarat, India

*Corresponding Author: Mehul Shah, Drashti Netralaya, Dahod, Gujarat, India.

Received: August 11, 2020; Published: October 07, 2020



Introduction: Congenital malformation is an important cause of childhood blindness. Hence, we attempted to study the factors responsible for it.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. We collected data from our hospital EMR for the period 2008 - 2019. We retrieved the total number of paediatric outdoor and children with congenitally malformed eyes. We also explored the history of night blindness in mothers during pregnancy, exported the data to excel sheets, and calculated the type of anomalies using descriptive analyses with SPSS 22.

Results: Our cohort included 1435 children out of the total 100946 (1.42%) outdoor of paediatric ophthalmology. We found various anomalies in our analyses. We discerned that 423 (29.47%) cases had a history of night blindness to mother during pregnancy, suggesting vitamin A deficiency.

Conclusion: Based on our clinical observation, it could be concluded that hypovitaminosis A in mother results in maldevelopment and congenital anomalies of the eye in children.

Keywords: Vitamin A Deficiency; Congenital Malformation of Eye; Hypovitaminosis A in Mothers



  1. Wadhwani M., et al. “Prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in India: A systematic review”. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 68 (2020): 311-315.
  2. Khanna RC. “Commentary: Childhood blindness in India:Regional variations”. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 66 (2018): 1461-1462.
  3. R Dandona and L Dandona. “Childhood blindness in India: a population based perspective”. British Journal of Ophthalmology 87 (2003): 263-265.
  4. G V S Murthy., et al. “Current status of cataract blindness and Vision 2020: The right to sightinitiative in India”. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 56 (2008): 489-494.
  5. Maestro-de-las-Casas C., et al. "Maternal folic acid-deficient diet causes congenital malformations in the mouse eye”. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 9 (2013): 587-596.
  6. Yomai AA and BI Pavlin. "Microphthalmia and anophthalmia in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia”. Pacific Health Dialogue 1 (2010): 141-144.
  7. Bhattacharjee H., et al. "Causes of childhood blindness in the northeastern states of India”. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 6 (2008): 495-4499.
  8. Millemann Y., et al. "Ocular and cardiac Bhattacharjee malformations associated with maternal hypovitaminosis A in cattle”. Veterinary Record 13 (2007): 441-443.
  9. Hornby SJ., et al. "Eye birth defects in humans may be caused by a recessively-inherited genetic predisposition to the effects of maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy”. Medical Science Monitor 11 (2003): HY23-HY26.
  10. Hornby SJ., et al. "Environmental risk factors in congenital malformations of the eye”. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 1 (2002): 67-77.
  11. Morriss-Kay GM and N Sokolova. "Embryonic development and pattern formation”. The FASEB Journal 9 (1996): 961-968.
  12. Palludan B. "The influence of vitamin A deficiency on foetal development in pigs with special reference to eye organogenesis”. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 2 (1976): 223-225.
  13. Giroud A., et al. "[Congenital ocular abnormalities in vitamin A deficiency]”. Ann Ocul (Paris) 195 (1962): 566-567.
  14. Roux C., et al. "[Congenital ocular anomalies in vitamin A deficiency]”. Bulletin des Societes d'Ophtalmologie de France 62 (1962): 12-21.
  15. Giroud A., et al. “Fetal eye malformations of the folic acid deficient rat]”. Archives D'anatomie Microscopique Et De Morphologie Experimentale 1 (1954): 21-41.
  16. Warkany J and E Schraffenberger. "Congenital malformations induced in rats by maternal vitamin A deficiency; defects of the eye”. Archives of Ophthalmology 35 (1946): 150-169.


Citation: Mehul Shah., et al. “Does Hypovitaminosis A in Mothers Cause Congenital Malformation of the Eye?". Acta Scientific Paediatrics 3.11 (2020): 04-07.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
ISI- IF1.042
JCR- IF0.24

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US