Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 10

Prevalence of Intestinal Infections with Entamoeba histolytica Among Patients of Makkah Hospitals, Saudi Arabia: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

Mohammed Othman Alkurbi1, Mazin Adnan Altuwrqi1, Raafat Abdel Moneim Hassanein1,2*, Aymen M. Madkhali3,4, Salwa Omar Alqurashi1, Hanan Hussain Almatrafi1, Noran Omar Basaif1, Roham Jafar Medhir1 and Sarah Bakheet Allehabe1

1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
3Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia
4Medical Research Centre, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author: Raafat Abdel Moneim Hassanein, Professor, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia.

Received: September 19, 2023; Published: September 29, 2023

Abstract

Background: Amoebiasis, a disease caused by the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica), the most important parasitic etiology of acute diarrhea. The present study was carried out to determines the prevalence of E. histolytica among patients of Makkah hospitals, Ministry of health, Saudi Arabia for five years (2014-2018).

Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the recorded intestinal amoebiasis infections among patients visiting Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Heraa General Hospital, Maternity and Children Hospital and King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, from 2014 to 2018. A total of 55,108 in- and outpatient were examined for intestinal amoebiasis infection.

Results: 1289 patients out of 55,108 were infected with E. histolytica with prevalence rate 2.3%. The highest percentage of positive cases were found in Al-Noor Specialist Hospital (5.7%) followed by Heraa General Hospital (3.99%), King Abdul-Aziz Hospital (Al Zahir) (0.7%) whereas only (0.4%) of examined samples were positive for E. histolytica in Maternity and Children Hospital. In addition, the occurrence of intestinal amoebiasis is higher among adults than children. Furthermore, the number of positive E. histolytica samples was decreased from 2014 to 2018.

Conclusions: The present study revealed that intestinal amoebiasis are still detected in the patients of Makkah hospitals and still a public health problem in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Improving the diagnostic procedures to detect E. histolytica, as well as performing regular epidemiological surveys about intestinal parasitic infections especially E. histolytica are required to develop effective prevention and control strategies.

 Keywords: Microscopic Examination; Entamoeba histolytica; Makkah; Saudi Arabia

References

  1. Tengku SA and Norhayati M. “Public health and clinical importance of amoebiasis in Malaysia: a review”. Tropical Biomedicine 28 (2011): 194-222.
  2. Yesigat T., et al. “Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Salmonella, Shigella, and Intestinal Parasites among Food Handlers in Motta Town, North West Ethiopia”. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology (2020).
  3. Garcia LS. “Diagnostic medical parasitology”. 6th ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA (2016): 552-583.
  4. Amer OSO., et al. “Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients of Prince Sultan Military Medical City in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia: A 5-year Retrospective Study”. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 49 (2017): 1889-1899.
  5. Kantor M., et al. “Entamoeba histolytica: Updates in Clinical Manifestation, Pathogenesis and Vaccine Development”. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2018): 4601420.
  6. Shirley DA and Moonah S. “Fulminant Amebic Colitis after Corticosteroid Therapy: A Systematic Review”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10 (2016): e0004879.
  7. Betanzos A., et al. “Analysis of the epithelial damage produced by Entamoeba histolytica infection”. Journal of Visualized Experiments (2014).
  8. Fotedar R., et al. “Laboratory diagnostic techniques for Entamoeba species”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 20 (2007): 511-532.
  9. Sateriale A and Huston CD. “A Sequential Model of Host Cell Killing and Phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica”. Journal of Parasitology Research (2011): 926706.
  10. Al-Braiken FA and Salem HS. “Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica in symptomatic children, Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia”. Egyptian journal of Immunology 15 (2008): 85-92.
  11. Salles JM. “Invasive amebiasis: an update on diagnosis and management”. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy (2014).
  12. Amer OH., et al. “Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among patients in local public hospitals of Hail, Northwestern Saudi Arabia”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 9 (2016): 44-48.
  13. Amer OSO., et al. “Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients of King Fahd Medical City in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia: A 5-Year Retrospective Study”. Journal of Parasitology Research (2018): 8076274.
  14. Omar MS., et al. “Intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren of Abha (Asir), Saudi Arabia”. Acta Tropica 48 (1991): 195-202.
  15. Ali SI., et al. “Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Ai-Medinah”. Annals of Saudi Medicine 12 (1992): 63-66.
  16. KA I. “Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among School Children in Taif”. Med Pub Journals (2018).
  17. General Authority for Statistics, KSA, The Kingdom’S Population Statistics By Administrative Regions And Sex.
  18. Abu-Madi MA et al. “Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term residents and settled immigrants in Qatar”. Parasites and Vectors1 (2010): 98.
  19. Dash NM., et al. “Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates”. Human Parasitic Diseases 2 (2010): 21-24.
  20. Hussein RA., et al. “Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children in Baghdad City”. Journal of College of Basic Education 71 (2011): 130-147.
  21. Al-Haddad AM and Baswaid SH. “Frequency of intestinal parasitic infection among children in Hadhramout governorate (Yemen)”. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology2 (2010): 479-488.
  22. Gabbad AA and Elawad MA. “Prevalence of intestinal parasite infection in primary school children in Elengaz Area, Khartoum, Sudan”. Academic Research International 5 (2014): 86-90.
  23. Bdir S and Adwan G. “Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Jenin Governorate, Palestine: A 10-year retrospective study”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine9 (2010): 745-747.
  24. Jaran AS. “Prevalence and seasonal variation of human intestinal parasites in patients attending hospital with abdominal symptoms in northern Jordan”. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 22 (2017): 756-760.
  25. Kumar N., et al. “EhCoactosin Stabilizes Actin Filaments in the Protist Parasite Entamoeba histolytica”. PLoS Pathogen 10 (2014): e1004362.
  26. Alqarni AS., et al. “Prevalence, type of infections and comparative analysis of detection techniques of intestinal parasites in the province of Belgarn, Saudi Arabia”. Peer Journal 10 (2022): e13889.
  27. Wakid MH. “Distribution of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia”. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 30 (2006): 146_152.
  28. Zaglool DA. “Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Patients of Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia”. Oman Medical Journal3 (2011): 182-185.
  29. Abdel-Hafez MM., et al. “Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Riyadh district, Saudi Arabia”. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 80 (1986): 631-634.
  30. Bakhraibah AO. “Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica in Adult Diarrheic Patients of King Fahd Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Allied Sciences 7 (2018): 177-182.
  31. Bauhofer AFL., et al. “Intestinal protozoan infections among children 0-168 months with diarrhoea in Mozambique: June 2014 - January 2018”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 14 (2020): e0008195.
  32. Saki J., et al. “Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers in Khuzestan, Southwest of Iran: A 10-year retrospective study”. African Journal of Microbiology Research 6 (2012): 2475-2480.
  33. Selman CA and Green LR. “Environmental health Specialists’ self-reported Foodborne illness outbreak investigation practices”. Journal of Environmental Health 6 (2008): 16-21.
  34. Abera B., et al. “Prevalence of salmonella typhi and intestinal parasites among food handlers in Bahir Dar town. Northwest Ethiopia”. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 1 (2010): 47-50.
  35. Aklilu B., et al. “Prevalence of intestinal parasites, Salmonella and Shigella among apparently health food handlers of Addis Ababa University student’s cafeteria, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia”. BMC Research Notes 8 (2015): 17.
  36. , et al. “Prevalence and associated factors of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers in Mettu town, Southwest Ethiopia”. Journal of Tropical Medicine (2021): 6669734.
  37. Hassanein RA., et al. “Prevalence of amebiasis and giardiasis among patients of Security Forces Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia”. Acta Scientific Medical Science.
  38. Hegazi MA., et al. “Prevalence and characters of Entamoeba histolytica infection in Saudi infants and children admitted with diarrhea at 2 main hospitals at South Jeddah: a re-emerging serious infection with unusual presentation”. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 17 (2013): 32-40.
  39. Haque R., et al. “Prevalence and immune response to Entamoeba histolytica infection in preschool children in Bangladesh”. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 60 (1999): 1031-1034.

Citation

Citation: Raafat Abdel Moneim Hassanein., et al. “Prevalence of Intestinal Infections with Entamoeba histolytica Among Patients of Makkah Hospitals, Saudi Arabia: A 5-Year Retrospective Study”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 7.10 (2023): 60-66.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Raafat Abdel Moneim Hassanein., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.403

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US