Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 4

A Comparative Study of Relationship Between Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Dietary Choices and Blood Pressure

Sonali Das1, Joyeta Ghosh2, Sudrita Roy Choudhury1*, Khusboo Singh1 and Samarpita Koner1

1Research Scholar, Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, NSHM Knowledge Campus-Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2Assistant Professor, Department of Dietetics and Applied Nutrition, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences (AIAS), Amity University, Kolkata, India

*Corresponding Author:Sudrita Roy Choudhury, Research Scholar, Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, NSHM Knowledge Campus-Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Received: March 21, 2023; Published: March 29, 2023


Regardless of age, race, or gender, hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. The World Health Organization states that hypertension is to blame for at least 45% of heart disease fatalities and 51% of stroke deaths. In the past, many people thought vegetarianism was strange and faddish, but nowadays, scientific evidence recognizes that vegetarian diets, when properly planned, are nutritionally adequate and offer positive health benefits in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. The purpose of the present study was to find out the prevalence of hypertension and its association with their choice of food (vegetarian or nonvegetarian). It also aimed to find out different demographic factors and their relationship with hypertension. The study was an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The adult population (male and female) of Podrah, Howrah Municipal Corporation, West Bengal, India, was the subject of this study. Purposive sampling method was adopted. Based on a series of standardised questionnaires that had been pretested, the survey was conducted. The anthropometric measurements were taken following standard protocol. The association between two qualitative data sets was calculated by Pearson’s chi-square test, and a "P’ value was determined for understanding its association. All the statistical analysis was performed by SPSS software (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20.0). ‘P’ value is equal to or less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The study analysed here compares the effects of a vegetarian diet compared to a non-vegetarian diet with regard to blood pressure, body composition, and other parameters. Significant association observed between these two food choices, whereas vegetarian diet choices have a lower percentage of hypertension than the other one. Further research needs to be conducted with a larger number of subjects to prevent possible skewing of the data.

Keywords: Hypertension; Vegetarian; Non-vegetarian; Blood Pressure; Adults


  1. Rosendorff Clive., et al. "Treatment of hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Society of Hypertension”. Circulation 19 (2015): e435-e470.
  2. Melese Legesse., et al. "Practice of Adults on Prevention of Hypertension and Associated Factors in Dessie Administrative city, Ethiopia 2016”. Medico Research Chronicles06 (2016): 530-541.
  3. Muntner Paul., et al. "Potential US population impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guideline”. Circulation2 (2018): 109-118.
  4. Yiannakopoulou Eugenia Ch., et al. "Adherence to antihypertensive treatment: a critical factor for blood pressure control”. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology3 (2005): 243-249.
  5. James Paul A., et al. "2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)”. Jama5 (2014): 507-520.
  6. Hu Frank B. "Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology”. Current Opinion in Lipidology 1 (2002): 3-9.
  7. Millen Barbara E., et al. “The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report: Development and Major Conclusions”. Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)3 (2016): 438-444.
  8. Margetts Barrie M., et al. "Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension: a randomised controlled trial”. British Medical Journal (Clin Res Ed) 293.6560 (1986): 1468-1471.
  9. ADA (American Dietetic Association), and DOC (Dietetics of Canada). "Position of the ADA and DOC: vegetarian diets”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 6 (2003): 748-765.
  10. Centers for disease control and prevention. “Leading causes of death in the United States” (2016).
  11. Tonstad Serena., et al. "Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2”. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases4 (2013): 292-299.
  12. Tonstad Serena., et al. "Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes Care5 (2009): 791-796.
  13. Li Duo., et al. "Lean meat and heart health”. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition2 (2005): 113.
  14. Vang Arnold., et al. "Meats, processed meats, obesity, weight gain and occurrence of diabetes among adults: findings from Adventist Health Studies”. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism2 (2008): 96-104.
  15. Adili Reheman., et al. "Regulation of platelet function and thrombosis by omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids”. Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators 139 (2018): 10-18.
  16. Snowdon David A and Roland L Phillips. "Does a vegetarian diet reduce the occurrence of diabetes?”. American Journal of Public Health5 (1985): 507-512.
  17. Conner Tamlin S., et al. "Let them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well-being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial”. PloS one2 (2017): e0171206.
  18. Ruxton CHS., et al. "The health benefits of omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a review of the evidence”. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics5 (2004): 449-459.
  19. Dhandevi PEM and Rajesh Jeewon. "Fruit and vegetable intake: Benefits and progress of nutrition education interventions-narrative review article”. Iranian Journal of Public Health10 (2015): 1309.
  20. Mujcic Redzo and Andrew J Oswald. "Evolution of well-being and happiness after increases in consumption of fruit and vegetables”. American Journal of Public Health8 (2016): 1504-1510.
  21. Conner Tamlin S., et al. "On carrots and curiosity: Eating fruit and vegetables is associated with greater flourishing in daily life”. British Journal of Health Psychology2 (2015): 413-427.
  22. May James M., et al. "Mechanisms of ascorbic acid stimulation of norepinephrine synthesis in neuronal cells”. Biochemical and biophysical research communications1 (2012): 148-152.
  23. Ghosh Joyeta., et al. "Prevalence of Constipation and its Relationship with Dietary Habits Among College Going Girls in the Age Group of 18-25 Years of Kolkata, West Bengal, India”. Acta Scientific Gastrointestinal Disorders 3 (2023).
  24. Ghosh Joyeta., et al. "Prevalence of metabolic syndrome, vitamin D level, and their association among elderly women in a rural community of West Bengal, India”. Medical Journal of Dr. DY Patil Vidyapeeth4 (2020): 315.
  25. Baines Surinder., et al. "How does the health and well-being of young Australian vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women compare with non-vegetarians?”. Public Health Nutrition5 (2007): 436-442.
  26. Valachovičová M., et al. "No evidence of insulin resistance in normal weight vegetarians: a case control study”. European Journal of Nutrition 45 (2006): 52-54.
  27. Liu Rui Hai. "Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet”. Advances in Nutrition3 (2013): 384S-392S.
  28. Snowdon David A and Roland L Phillips. "Does a vegetarian diet reduce the occurrence of diabetes?”. American Journal of Public Health5 (1985): 507-512.
  29. Choudhury Sudrita Roy., et al. "Traditional Indian Food for Improving Brain Cognition”. Acta Scientific Neurology12 (2022).
  30. Kris-Etherton, Penny M., et al. "Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer”. The American journal of medicine9 (2002): 71-88.
  31. Marsh, Kate, Carol Zeuschner, and Angela Saunders. "Health implications of a vegetarian diet: a review”. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine3 (2012): 250-267.
  32. Casas Rosa., et al. "The immune protective effect of the Mediterranean diet against chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases”. Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-Immune, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)4 (2014): 245-254.
  33. Fraser Gary., et al. "Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in black members of the Adventist Health Study-2”. Public Health Nutrition3 (2015): 537-545.
  34. Berkow Susan E and Neal D Barnard. "Blood pressure regulation and vegetarian diets”. Nutrition Reviews1 (2005): 1-8.
  35. Yokoyama Yoko., et al. "Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure”. Nutrition and Dietary Supplements 8 (2016): 57.
  36. Rizzo Nico S., et al. "Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns”. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics12 (2013): 1610-1619.
  37. Roy Choudhury S., et al. "Media influence on Dietary Practices among young adults of Kolkata”. Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 10 (2022): 09-15.
  38. Pal Sridatry., et al. "Assessment of consumption patterns of soft drinks and its impact on nutritional status among young adults of Kolkata”. 8.1(2023): 1050-1058.
  39. Hodgson Jonathan M., et al. "Partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with protein intake from lean red meat lowers blood pressure in hypertensive persons”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 4 (2006): 780-787.
  40. Wang Lu., et al. "Meat intake and the risk of hypertension in middle-aged and older women”. Journal of Hypertension2 (2008): 215-222.
  41. Miura Katsuyuki., et al. "Relation of vegetable, fruit, and meat intake to 7-year blood pressure change in middle-aged men: the Chicago Western Electric Study”. American Journal of Epidemiology 6 (2004): 572-580.
  42. Lajous Martin., et al. "Processed and unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension in women”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition3 (2014): 948-952.
  43. Cook Nancy R., et al. "Joint effects of sodium and potassium intake on subsequent cardiovascular disease: the Trials of Hypertension Prevention follow-up study”. Archives of Internal Medicine1 (2009): 32-40.
  44. Mente Andrew., et al. "Association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure”. New England Journal of Medicine7 (2014): 601-611.
  45. Menotti Alessandro., et al. "Comparison of multivariate predictive power of major risk factors for coronary heart diseases in different countries: results from eight nations of the Seven Countries Study, 25-year follow-up”. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk1 (1996): 69-75.
  46. Jonas Michael A., et al. "Statement on smoking and cardiovascular disease for health care professionals. American Heart Association”. Circulation5 (1992): 1664-1669.


Citation: Sudrita Roy Choudhury., et al. “A Comparative Study of Relationship Between Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Dietary Choices and Blood Pressure”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 7.4 (2023): 181-188.


Copyright: © 2023 Sudrita Roy Choudhury., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.403

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US