Community’s Mask Wearing Practice and its associated Undesirable Side Effects Among Iraqi Population Group in COVID-19 Era
Aya Jabbar Hussein1, Faraed D Salman2*, Manar Jabbar Hussein3, Marwa Jabbar Hussein4, Ahmed Jabbar Hussein5 and Jabbar Hussein Kamel6
1BSc Pharmacy (Iraq), MSc Cosmetic Science Student (USA/OH), MBA (USA/LA), Iraq
2Professor in Dental Assistant Department Medical Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnique University, Erbil/Iraq
3PhD Iraqi Board Degree OBG, Masters in Aesthetic Gynecology (UK), Masters in STEM Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Iraq
4Mosul University - College of Medicine, FKBMS - Medical Oncology/Erbil-Iraq, ESMO/ASCO Certified, Iraq
5Baghdad University - Dentistry College, Baird British Academy Conservative Dentistry (Certificate), Iraq
6Professor in Conservative Dentistry, Head of Conservative Department, TISHK University, Erbil, Iraq
*Corresponding Author: Faraed D Salman, Professor in Dental Assistant Department Medical Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnique University, Erbil/Iraq.
February 08, 2023; Published: February 27, 2023
Assessing the principles, knowledge, attitude, and compliance of the Iraqi population group with regard to mask use; raising awareness and accountability, counseling them on the value of wearing masks, and researching the most common negative effects of mask use among them.
Materials and Methods: 1205 responses to an online survey with a cross-sectional design were gathered from healthy Iraqi backgrounds, ranging in age from 11 to 65 and with varying levels of education. The survey was divided into 5 components that were relevant to the major goals and objectives of the research. Gender differences were expressed as frequencies and percentages using the chi-squared fisher exact test, with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. Data were analyzed using SPSS between various variables.
Results: Among the 1205 people enrolled in the study, females comprised of (723,60%), and males (482,40%) with age range (11-65 years old).
Concerning adherence to wearing mask: The majority of the sample (73% female, 68% male) were adherent to wearing masks, whereas (25%-28%) were non-adherent, with no significant difference between them owing to uncomfortability, with social stigma being the predominant source of this uncomfortability; the overall sample was 30.80% female and 43% male.
Concerning association between health problems side effects of wearing mask: More than half sample (54% females) and (59.7% males) didn’t suffer from any health conditions, while (44.40% females, 36.30% males) suffered from health conditions with highly significant difference at p 0.001 sequentially: respiratory problems, psychological problems, and others with non-significant difference between these problems at p 0.18.
For children, nearly half of the sample (50% girls and 47.90% boys) had the same health problems as in adults, following the same order; respiratory, psychological, and others with a non-significant difference at p 0.096.
Concerning knowledge and attitude: A relatively good percentage of total sample (61.90% females, 54% males) change their mask daily in comparison with (22.10% females, 23.90% males) who wore the mask more than 2 days with highly significant difference at p 0.001, also a good knowledge and attitude percentage concerning disposing mask after frequent use (75.30% females, 72.30% males) with significant difference at p 0.03.
Concerning knowledge and attitude of general population regarding the best type of mask to wear: Less than half of the total sample (47.90% females, 47.70% males) responded that N-95 is the best type with non-significant difference at p 0.2 and (53.50% females 44.30% males) use regular, medical or non-medical mask with highly significant difference at p 0.006.
Concerning the need to wear double masks during the Delta variant: One third of the sample (36.50% females, 28.80% males) felt the urge to wear a mask, while the other third (32% females, 37% males) felt it was not required to wear a mask with a highly significant difference at p 0.008.
Concerning advocating for people to wear masks: More than half of the sample (56.90% females, 56.70% males) advice other people to wear masks more frequently in public places with non-significant difference at p 0.051.
Conclusion: The study revealed good knowledge and attitude level of participants towards; adherence, principles, disposing masks, and promoting the necessity of mask-wearing, with fair level toward the best type of mask to wear; the type they utilize the most, unsatisfactory low level toward hand washing, sanitizing after wearing mask, and for the need to wear double masks during the delta variant with approximately half of the total sample (adults and children) suffered from health issues due to the side effects (respiratory, psychological etc…) it’s imperative to identify solutions to manage these adverse effects.
Keywords: Mask-wearing; Practice; Iraqi Population; Side Effect
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