Seham A Ibrahim1, Hassan A Shora2, Ashraf Eltantawy3 and Ismail Dahshan4*
1Assistant Professor, Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt
2Senior Research Scientist, Molecular Biology/Biochemistry, Port-Said University, Egypt
3Professor and Chairman of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt
4Lecturer, Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Ismail Dahshan, Senior Lecturer, Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt.
Received: December 27, 2022; Published: January 11, 2023
Background: Depressive disorders are highly prevalent in the general population worldwide. Evidence suggests a longitudinal reciprocal bi-directional relationship between depression and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed at detecting the relationship between glycemic control and the spectrum of depressive disorders among patients with type II diabetes attending the health insurance outpatient clinics of medical complex, Ismailia city between January and March 2022, Ismailia city, Egypt.
Methods: This study recruited 105 patients with type II diabetes randomly selected from patients attending the specialized endocrinology and diabetes center clinics in the medical complex, health insurance Ismailia city and matched on a regular basis with another 105 non-diabetic individuals randomly selected from new patients attending for general medical checkup and covered in the comprehensive medical insurance pilot run currently in Egypt. Brief medical history and examination was carried out for all participants including, duration of type 2 DM diagnosis, presence of diabetic complications, and smoking status, and BMI recording, followed by interview for self-completion of the “Beck Depression inventory II scale”. A venous blood sample, in a non-fasting state, was drawn for measuring HbA1C% from all participants.
Results: The mean HbA1c% in diabetic group was 8.7% + 2.1, compared with 5.3 + 0.44 in non-diabetic group. Assessment of prevalence and the grades of depression in the two study groups, showed a highly statistically significant difference between the two groups with 55 subjects representing 52.4% in the diabetic group, compared with 11 subjects, representing 10.5% in the non-diabetic group. The grades of severity of depression between the two groups showed also a highly statistically significant difference with 33.3%, 15.2%, and 3.8% respectively for mild, moderate, and severe depression in the diabetic group, compared with 8.6%, 1.9%, and 0% respectively for mild, moderate, and severe depression in the non-diabetic group. High statistically significant difference in Beck ‘depression inventory Score (BDI-II) was shown between the two groups with mean score of 14.2 + 7.6 in the diabetic group, compared with 9.8 + 3.3 in the non-diabetic group. A linear positive correlation was shown between HbA1c%, and BDI-II score in all of the study participants. In the diabetic group a moderate positive correlation was shown between BDI-II and HbA1c% with r coefficient 0.37 that was highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). The results of binary regression analysis model for prediction of depression, showed among several independent factors selected, that smoking, and presence of diabetic complications were statistically significant predictors (P = 0.016, and 0.013, respectively), and glycemic control (HbA1c%) was highly statistically significant predictor (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: In this study, poor glycemic control reflected in high glycosylated hemoglobin percent (HbA1c%), was shown to be closely related to higher percentages of all grades of depressive disorders as assessed by BDI-II scale (Beck Depression inventory II scale) when comparing type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients, and among the type 2 diabetic patients. A positive linear correlation was shown between the glycemic control level and BDI-II scale score. Glycemic control was shown to be the strongest predictor of depressive disorders, followed by presence of diabetic complications, and smoking.
Keywords: Glycemic Control; Spectrum of Depressive Disorders, and Predictors
Citation: Ismail Dahshan., et al. “Glycemic Control of Type 2 Diabetics and Associated Depressive Disorders Spectrum - Descriptive Comparative Study in Ismailia City - Egypt”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 7.2 (2023): 47-57.
Copyright: © 2022 Ismail Dahshan., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.