Assessment of Salt Intake Markers
Among Hypertensives Patients Attending Primary Care Clinic of a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital
Ayodapo Abayomi Olusola1*, Adeagbo Adedayo Olutunji2, Omosanya Olusegun Emmanuel2, Monsudi Kehinde Fasasi3, Olukokun Taiwo A2 and Olagbemide Olanrewaju Joel2
1Consultant Family Physician, Department of Family Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
2Consultant Family Physician, Department of Family Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ekiti State, Nigeria, Consultant Ophthalmologist,
3Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Birnin-Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Ayodapo Abayomi Olusola, Consultant Family Physician, Department of Family Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
May 23, 2022; Published: October 13, 2022
Introduction: The development of hypertension has been linked to dietary sodium, hence, a low-sodium diet in conjunction with hypertensive medications has been widely recommended in getting optimum blood pressure control. Therefore, this study assesses salt intake among hypertensive patient using dietary salt markers.
Method: This quasi-experimental study investigated the salt taste threshold, overnight urine collection for sodium estimation and its
relationship with dietary salt intake among 564 adult hypertensive (282 each in study and control group) attending Family Medicine
Clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti (FETHI), Ekiti State. Respondents in the study group were taught and shown in practical
terms the recommended daily salt consumption. Salt solutions were used to measure the salt taste thresholds (STT) which is the
ability of respondents to discern the taste of salt in graded solutions of sodium chloride using single-blinded forced stimulus drop
technique. Urinary sodium was estimated from overnight urine collection which was a low-burden alternative to the 24 hour urinary
sodium excretion (USE).
Result: The baseline mean urinary sodium excretion ( mmol/l) and mean salt taste threshold
( mmol/l) was high in both the study and control group (210.4 ± 57.2 vs 214.0 ± 62.2; 47.3 ±
19.7 vs 49.7 ± 20.0). Post intervention, there was a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in
the mean USE and mean STT among the study group (199.4 ± 48.4 and 42.9 ± 17.7). A direct relationship between STT and USE was found and the fact that either of the two variables could serve as a marker to estimate individuals and population salt intake.
Conclusion: The dietary salt intake among hypertensive adults was high as evident by salt taste threshold and urinary sodium excretion. Educating patient through practical demonstration on quantity of recommended salt intake will help to combat the increasing burden of uncontrolled hypertension.
Keywords: Salt Intake Markers; Hypertension; Primary Care Clinic; Salt Taste Threshold; Urinary Sodium Excretion
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