Simplified Bioanalytical Approaches for the Characterization of Microalgae and Cyanobacteria
Suhaina Nashath Mohamed Iqbal1*, Mohamed Shariff Mohamed Din2 and Subha Bhassu1,3*
1Animal Genetics and Genome Evolutionary Lab (AGAGEL), Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, Malaysia
2Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
3Centre for Research in Biotechnology for Agriculture, Universiti Malaya, Malaysia
*Corresponding Author: Subha Bhassu, Animal Genetics and Genome Evolutionary Lab (AGAGEL), Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, Malaysia.
March 29, 2022; Published: June 10, 2022
Harmful microalgae and cyanobacterial bloom cause deteriorated water quality and raises severe health concerns. This study discussed the demonstrations of simplified bioanalytical tools to enhance the natural resources of microalgae and cyanobacteria, to be given its importance, and how this knowledge can be used for wealth creation. Three bioanalytical approaches; (1) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), (2) Raman spectroscopy, and (3) universal plastid biomarker, were successfully incorporated in selected microalgae and cyanobacteria. GC-MS analysis via solvent extraction characterized the organic compounds such as hydrocarbons and silicones derivatives. Air-dried thin layer of microalgae and cyanobacteria analyzed in Raman spectroscopy corresponded to three major spectra peaks, which fingerprints saffron and carotene photosynthetic pigments. Lastly, the taxonomic classification was simplified via the plastid 23S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) biomarker, whereby, the Neighbor-Joining tree showed a clear separation between the phylogenetic clade of brown and green microalgae (eukaryotic), and cyanobacteria (prokaryotic). In short, this simplified multi-approaches; using molecular biomarkers provided an accurate identification on the species of microalgae and cyanobacteria, chemical biomarkers GC-MS characterized the organic compounds for sustainable green technology in industrial application, and finally, Raman spectroscopy can be future developed as a miniaturized handheld device for field sample detection for its fingerprinting characterization.
Keywords: Microalgae; Cyanobacteria; Plastid 23S rRNA; GC-MS; Raman Spectroscopy
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