Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 6

Protective Effect of Arabian Balsam (Commiphora gileadensis) Against Hepatorenal Toxicity of Diazinon in Male Rats

Mohsen Ali Khormi1*, Moustafa Hussein Roshdy Elnaggar2,3 and Mansour Attia Al-Hazmi2

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Jazan University, KSA
2Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, KSA
3Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

*Corresponding Author: Mohsen Ali Khormi, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Jazan University, KSA.

Received: April 14, 2022; Published: May 09, 2022

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of the Arabian Balsam (Commiphora gileadensis) against the hepatorenal toxicity of Diazinon (DZN) on adult male albino rats. Forty male albino rats weighing 180-220 g were divided into four equal groups as follows: Group I (control group): untreated group that received 0.2 mg/kg of corn oil, daily for 6 weeks. Group II (DZN group): orally administrated 50 mg/kg of DZN in corn oil, daily for 6 weeks. Group III (Balsam group): orally administrated Arabian balsam 500 mg/kg daily for 6 weeks. Group IV (Balsam + DZN group): orally administrated 500 mg/kg balsam + 50 mg/kg DZN, daily for 6 weeks. After six weeks, blood samples were collected from retro-orbital venous plexus. Serum samples used to determine levels of liver and kidney functions. After blood sampling, livers and kidneys were isolated and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and then were processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain and examined under light microscope. DZN administration caused significant decrease in final body weights, total proteins, albumin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol but significant increase in triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate amino-transferase, alanine, aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatinine and urea nitrogen, creatinine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes compared with control and Balsam treated groups. Balsam administration led to significant decrease in blood glucose level versus control and DZN groups. In balsam + DZN group led to improvement of lipid profile, liver function tests, kidney function tests and tissue destructive enzymes. These improvements were confirmed histologically. In conclusion, DZN caused hepatorenal toxicity in rats that was improved by Arabian Balsam administration for 6 weeks. In conclusion, DZN led to hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, alteration of liver and kidney function tests increased in tissue destructive markers as CK and LDH. Administration of balsam led to improvement of measured parameters. These improvements were confirmed histologically. In conclusion, DZN caused hepatorenal toxicity in rats that was improved by Arabian Balsam administration for 6 weeks.

Keywords: Arabian Balsam; Commiphora gileadensis; Diazinon; Kidney; Liver; Physiology; Histology; Rats

References

  1. Gokcimen A., et al. “Effects of diazinon at different doses on rat liver and pancreas tissues”. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology2 (2007): 103-108.
  2. Duarte-Restrepo E., et al. “Effects of chlorpyrifos on the crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei”. PloS one4 (2020): e0231310.
  3. Silva CO., et al. “Linking cholinesterase inhibition with behavioural changes in the sea snail Gibbula umbilicalis: Effects of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology 225 (2019): 108570.
  4. Eslamieh J. “Commiphora gileadensis”. Cactus and Succulent Journal5 (2011): 206-210.
  5. Lev E. “Reconstructed materia medica of the Medieval and Ottoman al-Sham”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology2-3 (2002): 167-179.
  6. Lardos A. “The botanical materia medica of the Iatrosophikon—a collection of prescriptions from a monastery in Cyprus”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology3 (2006): 387-406.
  7. Iluz D., et al. “Medicinal properties of Commiphora gileadensis”. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology8 (2010): 516-520.
  8. Amiel E., et al. “β-Caryophyllene, a compound isolated from the biblical balm of gilead (Commiphora gileadensis), is a selective apoptosis inducer for tumor cell lines”. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2012).
  9. Dudai N., et al. “Chemical composition and monoterpenoid enantiomeric distribution of the essential oils from apharsemon (Commiphora gileadensis)”. Medicines3 (2017): 66.
  10. Al-Attar AM and Zari TA. “Influences of crude extract of tea leaves, Camellia sinensis, on streptozotocin diabetic male albino mice”. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences4 (2010): 295-301.
  11. Trinder P. “Colorimetric method for glucose determination in blood and other biological fluids”. Annales of Clinical Biochem 6 (1969): 24.
  12. Fossati and Prencipe L. “Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide”. Clinical Chemistry10 (1982): 2077-2080.
  13. Richmond W. “Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum”. Clinical Chemistry12 (1973): 1350-1356.
  14. Warnick GR., et al. “Estimation of HDL-cholesterol selected methods”. Clinical Chemistry 1 (1983): 91-99.
  15. Friedewald WT., et al. “Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge”. Clinical Chemistry6 (1972): 499-502.
  16. Reitman S and Frankel S. “A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases”. American Journal of Clinical Pathology1 (1957): 56-63.
  17. McComb RB and Bowers GN. “Study of optimum buffer conditions for measuring alkaline phosphatase activity in human serum”. Clinical Chemistry2 (1972): 97-104.
  18. Szasz G. “A kinetic photometric method for serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase”. Clinical Chemistry2 (1969): 124-136.
  19. Doumas BT., et al. “Standardization in bilirubin assays: evaluation of selected methods and stability of bilirubin solutions”. Clinical Chemistry9 (1973): 984-993.
  20. Peters T. “Total protein: direct Biuret method”. Clinical Chemistry 14 (1968): 1147-1159.
  21. Busher JT. “Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations”. Chapter 10: Serum Albumin and Globulin. 3rd Walker HK, Hall WD and Hurst JW (editors). 1990, Boston, Butterworths (1990).
  22. Moore JF and Sharer JD. “Methods for quantitative creatinine determination”. Current Protocols in Human Genetics1 (2017): A. 3O. 1-A. 3O. 7.
  23. Patton CJ and Crouch S. “Spectrophotometric and kinetics investigation of the Berthelot reaction for the determination of ammonia”. Analytical Chemistry. 49.3 (1977): 464-469.
  24. Stevens JF., et al. “Measurement of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase using reflectance spectroscopy and reagent strips”. Journal of Clinical Pathology.12 (1983): 1371-1376.
  25. Breckenridge C., et al. “A 30-day toxicity study of inhaled fenitrothion in the albino rat”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology1 (1982): 32-43.
  26. Kalender Y., et al. “Effects of diazinon on pseudocholinesterase activity and haematological indices in rats: the protective role of vitamin E”. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 22.1 (2006): 46-51.
  27. Mossa A-TH., et al. “Physiological and histopathological changes in the liver of male rats exposed to paracetamol and diazinon”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2.3 (2012): S1683-S1690.
  28. Mansour SA and Mossa A-TH. “Adverse effects of exposure to low doses of chlorpyrifos in lactating rats”. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 27.3 (2011): 213-224.
  29. Stromborg K. editor Reproductive tests of diazinon on bobwhite quail. Avian and Mammalian Wildlife Toxicology: Second Conference: ASTM International (1981).
  30. Ambali S., et al. “Evaluation of subchronic chlorpyrifos poisoning on hematological and serum biochemical changes in mice and protective effect of vitamin C”. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences2 (2007): 111-120.
  31. Al-Attar AM. “Effect of grapeseed oil on diazinon-induced physiological and histopathological alterations in rats”. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 22.3 (2015): 284-292.
  32. El-Shenawy NS., et al. “Amelioratory effect of vitamin E on organophosphorus insecticide diazinon-induced oxidative stress in mice liver”. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 96.2 (2010): 101-107.
  33. Abdollahi M., et al. “Oxidative stress in aging”. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. Hindawi; (2014).
  34. Shah PC., et al. “Phytase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 for a novel application to degrade organophosphorus pesticides”. AMB Express1 (2017): 1-11.
  35. Inyang-Etoh P., et al. “Hight as a surrogate for bodyweight for estimating the dosage of praziquantel and artesunate in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in school-age children”. Mary Slessor Journal of Medicine1 (2010): 10-14.
  36. Muthuviveganandavel V., et al. “Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats”. International Journal of Drug Delivery.4 (2010): 352-356.
  37. Zarn JA., et al. “Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by inhibiting sterol 14 alpha-demethylase and aromatase”. Environmental Health Perspectives3 (2003): 255-261.
  38. Agbor GA., et al. “Hepatoprotective activity of Hibiscus cannabinus (Linn.) against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced liver damage in rats”. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences10 (2005): 1397-1401.
  39. Abdou HM and El Mazoudy RH. “Oxidative damage, hyperlipidemia and histological alterations of cardiac and skeletal muscles induced by different doses of diazinon in female rats”. Journal of Hazardous Materials 1-3 (2010): 273-278.
  40. Jafari-Dehkordi E and Seidkhani-Nahal A. “Lipid-lowering effect of artichoke on liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and plasma lipids in hyperlipidemic rats”. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research19 (2011): 4918-4924.
  41. Zari TA and Al-Attar AM. “Therapeutic effects of olive leaves extract on rats treated with a sublethal concentration of carbendazim”. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences4 (2011): 413-426.
  42. Karimi-Khouzani O., et al. “Anti-inflammatory and ameliorative effects of gallic acid on fluoxetine-induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats”. Pharmacological Reports4 (2017): 830-835.
  43. Al-Attar A. “The ameliorative role of β-carotene pretreatment on diazinon-induced enzymological and histopathological changes in Wistar male rats”. Global Journal of Pharmacology 3 (2009): 171-177.
  44. Ahmadi-Naji R., et al. “Evaluation of the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits on diazinon-induced liver toxicity and oxidative stress in rats”. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine. 7.5 (2017): 454.
  45. Hassani S., et al. “Alteration of hepatocellular antioxidant gene expression pattern and biomarkers of oxidative damage in diazinon-induced acute toxicity in Wistar rat: a time-course mechanistic study”. EXCLI Journal 17 (2018): 57.
  46. Lukaszewicz-Hussain A. “Role of oxidative stress in organophosphate insecticide toxicity–Short review”. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology2 (2010): 145-150.
  47. Lari P., et al. “Evaluation of diazinon-induced hepatotoxicity and protective effects of crocin”. Toxicology and Industrial Health4 (2015): 367-376.
  48. El Rabey HA., et al. “The antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of the Arabian balsam tree “Commiphora gileadensis” in hyperlipidaemic male rats”. Journal of Taibah University for Science1 (2020): 831-841.
  49. Shah MD and Iqbal M. “Diazinon-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in rats”. Food and Chemical Toxicology12 (2010): 3345-3353.
  50. El-Demerdash FM and Nasr, H.M. “Antioxidant effect of selenium on lipid peroxidation, hyperlipidemia and biochemical parameters in rats exposed to diazinon”. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 28 (2014): 89-93.

Citation

Citation: Mohsen Ali Khormi., et al. “Protective Effect of Arabian Balsam (Commiphora gileadensis) Against Hepatorenal Toxicity of Diazinon in Male Rats”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 6.6 (2022): 69-81.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Mohsen Ali Khormi., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.403

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US