Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Editorial Volume 6 Issue 5

Bisphenol A and Melamine: The Toxins of the Modern Civilization

Nitish Rai1* and Dibyajyoti Banerjee2

1Department of Biotechnology, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India
2Department of Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India

*Corresponding Author: Nitish Rai, Department of Biotechnology, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India.

Received: April 25, 2022; Published:


Bisphenol-A is one of the most common chemicals produced in the highest volume worldwide with over 6 billion pounds production annually [1]. It is a synthetic chemical used in the manufacturing of polysulfone, polycarbonate, polyacrylate, epoxy resins, flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A and polyvinyl chloride plastics [2]. The polymers like polycarbonate and epoxy resins are dangerously associated with food items as they are used in food containers, reusable plastic bottles, baby feeders, dinner wares and internal coating of packaged food cans [3]. Today, the use of these polymers is not only limited to food industry but has extended to medical and dental devices, building materials, thermal papers, sunglasses, CD-ROM etc [2]. The production and usage have been so high that Bisphenol A is now ubiquitously present in the environment and a study has estimated that over 90% of people have considerable levels of Bisphenol A in the body [4]. The widespread exposure of Bisphenol A has made it a major health threat due to its potential toxicity in humans. Accumulating evidence suggests that Bisphenol A causes endocrine toxicity by mimicking estrogen compounds and disrupts circulating levels of hormone [5]. It is also reported to accumulate and severely affect vital organs like Kidney, testis, brain, heart, liver and pancreas [6-11]. Further there are reports that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may be underlying cause of Bisphenol A associated toxicity.


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  3. Geens T., et al. "Are potential sources for human exposure to bisphenol-A overlooked?”. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health214 (2011): 339-347.
  4. Calafat AM., et al. "Exposure of the US population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003–2004”. Environmental Health Perspectives116 (2008): 39-44.
  5. Gao H., et al. "Bisphenol A and hormone-associated cancers: current progress and perspectives”. Medicine94 (2015).
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  10. Xia W., et al. "Early-life exposure to bisphenol a induces liver injury in rats involvement of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis”. PloS one9 (2014): e90443.
  11. Carchia E., et al. "Evaluation of low doses BPA-induced perturbation of glycemia by toxicogenomics points to a primary role of pancreatic islets and to the mechanism of toxicity”. Cell Death and Disease6 (2015): e1959-e1959.
  12. Kang J., et al. "Human exposure to bisphenol A”. Toxicology 226 (2006): 79-89.
  13. Cooper JE., et al. "Assessment of bisphenol A released from reusable plastic, aluminium and stainless steel water bottles”. Chemosphere 85 (2011): 943-947.
  14. Rai N., et al. "Urinary melamine: proposed parameter of melamine adulteration of food”. Nutrition30 (2014): 380-385.
  15. Li Q., et al. "Melamine and food safety: A 10-year review”. Current Opinion in Food Science30 (2019): 79-84.
  16. Dorne Jean Lou., et al. "Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology3 (2013): 218-229.
  17. Lund KH., et al. "Migration of formaldehyde and melamine monomers from kitchen-and tableware made of melamine plastic”. Food Additives and Contaminants23 (2006): 948-955.


Citation: Nitish Rai and Dibyajyoti Banerjee. “Bisphenol A and Melamine: The Toxins of the Modern Civilization". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 6.5 (2022): 00-00.


Copyright: © 2022 Nitish Rai and Dibyajyoti Banerjee. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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