Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 5

Hypertension and the Interior Ion-milieu. Can we Overcome Hypertension with Regulated Breathing?

András Sikter*

Municipal Clinic of Szentendre, Internal Medicine, Szentendre, Hungary

*Corresponding Author: András Sikter, Municipal Clinic of Szentendre, Internal Medicine, Szentendre, Hungary.

Received: March 15, 2022; Published: April 22, 2022


The author presents a new model for age-associated diseases through a hypothesized pathogenesis of hypertension. Preservation or restoration of the constancy of each original cell-specific intracellular ion-pattern is essential for upholding cellular identity and integrity. The ageing background is intracellular acidosis: low-grade respiratory acidosis elevates the intracellular HCO3-/Cl- gradient and induces metabolic syndrome, while low-grade metabolic acidosis causes exhausting buffer syndrome (EBS) with a decreased intracellular HCO3-/Cl- rate. The former elicits higher aldosterone levels to restore the original ion-pattern by NHE-1 (natrium-hydrogen exchange) mechanism located in the membrane of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and by retaining NaCl. The fault of ion-status restoration leads to Salt-sensitive hypertension through cascades of events. The ion-pattern changes in EBS elicit angiotensin II levels elevation through the renin-angiotensin system, which tries to eliminate intracellular changes via NBCn1 (natrium-bicarbonate cotransporter). However, it leads to a dead-end, and Salt-resistant hypertension develops. Hypertension occurs because restoring the original intracellular ion-pattern in VSMCs by aldosterone and angiotensin II fails. These hormonal counter-regulations lead to Na+ retention and alkaline overcompensation in the VSMCs. There may be several explanations for the failure, but hypertension would not develop if the intracellular ion-milieu were initially neutral or slightly alkaline. Regulated breathing could overcome hypertension.

Keywords: Age-associated Diseases; Exhausting Buffer Syndrome (EBS); Hypertension; Intracellular pH Homeostasis; Metabolic Syndrome; Signalling by Intracellular Ion-pattern


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Citation: András Sikter. “Hypertension and the Interior Ion-milieu. Can we Overcome Hypertension with Regulated Breathing?”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 6.5 (2022): 155-164.


Copyright: © 2022 András Sikter. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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