The Psychological Effect of Virtual Learning on Mothers During the Pandemic with their Children
Areej Mohammed Alabdulsalam1, Mezoun Almohaimeed1, Mostafa Kofi1*, Dakhel Fahad Almubarak2, Abdulelah Mutlaq Alotaibi3, Raghad Sulaiman Alkahmous4 and Rakan Ziyad M Alotaibi5
1F&CM Department, PSMMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2Medical Intern, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia
3General Practitioner, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3Medical Student, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4General Practitioner, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Mostafa Kofi, F&CM Department, PSMMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
February 28, 2022; Published: March 29, 2022
Background: Pandemic outbreak causes various effects on different parts of our lives: the learning process. One of the ways to continue education is virtual learning which replaces traditional ways. It is a mixture method between face-to-face teaching and an online approach .
Aim: To improve mothers' mental health who deal with their children during virtual learning during a pandemic.
Method: A cross-sectional study was undertaken at Riyadh's Prince Sultan Military Medical City's Al-Wazarat healthcare center. During the outbreak, three hundred eight mothers were given a self-administered questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic variables, homeschooling data, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
Results: A total of 308 mothers participated, and the vast majority 292 (98%) of them were Saudi. Almost all 306 (99.4%) of the participants reported spending time with their children during online learning. Class room-based schooling was the preferred schooling style by 209 (68.08%) of the mothers. In addition, 43 (14%) were borderline anxiety, and a similar percentage was borderline depression. The prevalence of anxiety and depression was 191 (62%) and 222 (72.1%), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that classroom-based schooling was the significant risk factor for anxiety and depression with OR=86.761, 95%CI (30.467-247.067), and 53.005 95%CI (14.855-189.128), respectively, and a P-value of <0.001.
Conclusion: Depression and anxiety were highly prevalent among mothers with children in homeschooling during the COVID-19 pandemic. Class room-based schooling was the only significant risk factor for anxiety and depression. At the same time, old age was a significant protective factor from depression among the participated mothers. This study highlights the recognition of the importance of mental health screening among women who have children studying online.
Recommendation: Measures need to be implemented to decrease the prevalence of depression and anxiety among mothers who take care of their children during online learning, such as decreasing the number of mothers' working hours and asking the father to support the mother and helping them during educational processes.
Keywords: Virtual Learning; Pandemic; Depression Anxiety; Mothers; Children
- Rajab MH., et al. “Challenges to online medical education during the COVID-19 pandemic”. Cureus 7 (2020).
- Sarah Garone NDTR. “How Parents Can Deal With the Stress of Virtual Education”. Verywell Family (2020).
- Jaglois J. The Investigators: How virtual schooling could impact parents' mental health” (2020).
- Yang Q., et al. “Parental Social Comparison Related to Tutoring Anxiety, and Guided Approaches to Assisting Their Children's Home Online Learning During the COVID-19 Lockdown”. Frontiers in Psychology (2021): 3167.
- Cui S., et al. “Experiences and Attitudes of Elementary School Students and Their Parents Toward Online Learning in China During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Questionnaire Study”. Journal of medical Internet Research5 (2021): e24496.
- Garrote A., et al. “Teacher expectations and parental stress during emergency distance learning and their relationship to students’ perception”. Frontiers in Psychology (2021): 3961.
- Misirli O and Ergulec F. “Emergency remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: Parents experiences and perspectives”. Education and Information Technologies 29 (2021): 1-20.
- Picca M., et al. “Distance learning, technological devices, lifestyle and behavior of children and their family during the COVID-19 lockdown in Lombardy: a survey”. Italian Journal of Pediatrics 1 (2021): 1-6.
- Thorell LB., et al. “Parental experiences of home schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic: Differences between seven European countries and children with and without mental health conditions”. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 7 (2021): 1-3.
- Calvano C., et al. “Families in the COVID-19 pandemic: parental stress, parent mental health and the occurrence of adverse childhood experiences—results of a representative survey in Germany”. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2021): 1-3.
- Dong C., et al. “Young children’s online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: Chinese parents’ beliefs and attitudes”. Children and Youth Services Review 118 (2020): 105440.
- Pajarianto H., et al. “Study from Home in the Middle of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of Religiosity, Teacher, and Parents Support Against Academic Stress”. Journal of Talent Development and Excellence2s (2020): 1791-1807.
- Scholar R. “The impact of covid-19- pandemic on online learning management: analysis of psychological stress among teaching professionals”. Journal of Information and Computational Science (2020).
- Farooq F., et al. “Challenges of online medical education in Pakistan during COVID-19 pandemic”. Journal of College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 30 (2020): 67-69.
- Zhao Y., et al. “The Effects of Online Homeschooling on Children, Parents, and Teachers of Grades 1–9 During the COVID-19 Pandemic”. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research 26 (2020): e925591-1.
- Eyimaya AO and Irmak AY. “Relationship between parenting practices and children's screen time during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey”. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 56 (2020): 24-29.
- Wu M., et al. “Mental health status of students’ parents during COVID-19 pandemic and its influence factors”. General Psychiatry4 (2020).
- Bobo E., et al. “How to do children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience lockdown during the COVID-19 outbreak?”. L'encephale (2020).
- Morelli M., et al. “Parents and Children During the COVID-19 Lockdown: The Influence of Parenting Distress and Parenting Self-Efficacy on Children’s Emotional Well-Being”. Frontiers in Psychology 11 (2020): 2584.
- Janssen LH., et al. “Does the COVID-19 pandemic impact parents' and adolescents' well-being? An EMA study on daily effect and parenting”. PloS One10 (2020): e0240962.
- Park ER., et al. “A Virtual Resiliency Intervention Promoting Resiliency for Parents of Children with Learning and Attentional Disabilities: A Randomized Pilot Trial”. Maternal and Child Health Journal1 (2020): 39-53.
- Zhao Y., et al. “The effects of online homeschooling on children, parents, and teachers of grades 1–9 during the COVID-19 pandemic”. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research 26 (2020): e925591-1.
- Letzel V., et al. “Energetic students, stressed parents, and nervous teachers: A comprehensive exploration of inclusive homeschooling during the COVID-19 crisis”. Open Education Studies1 (2020): 159-170.
- Becker SP., et al. “Remote learning during COVID-19: examining school practices, service continuation, and difficulties for adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder”. Journal of Adolescent Health6 (2020): 769-777.
- Abuhammad S. “Barriers to distance learning during the COVID-19 outbreak: A qualitative review from parents’ perspective”. Heliyon 10 (2020): e05482.
- Parczewska T. “Difficult situations and ways of coping with them in parents' experiences homeschooling their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland”. Education 3-13. 49.7 (2021): 889-900.
- Trzcińska-Król M. “Students with special educational needs in distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic–parents’ opinions”. Interdyscyplinarne Konteksty Pedagogiki Specjalnej 29 (2020): 173-191.
- Mazza C., et al. “A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Italian people during the COVID-19 pandemic: immediate psychological responses and associated factors”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health9 (2020): 3165.
- Brown SM., et al. “Stress and parenting during the global COVID-19 pandemic”. Child Abuse and Neglect 110 (2020): 104699.
- Gassman-Pines A., et al. “COVID-19, and parent-child psychological well-being”. Pediatrics 4 (2020).
- Marchetti D., et al. “Parenting-related exhaustion during the Italian COVID-19 lockdown”. Journal of Pediatric Psychology10 (2020): 1114-1123.
- Patrick SW., et al. “The well-being of parents and children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey”. Pediatrics 4 (2020).
- Romero Triñanes E., et al. “Testing the Effects of COVID-19 Confinement in Spanish Children: The Role of Parents’ Distress, Emotional Problems and Specific Parenting”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19 (2020): 6975.
- Fontanesi L., et al. “The effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on parents: A call to adopt urgent measures”. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and PolicyS1 (2020): S79.
- Brooks SK., et al. “The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: a rapid review of the evidence”. The Lancet10227 (2020): 912-920.
- Spinelli M., et al. “Parents' stress and children's psychological problems in families facing the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy”. Frontiers in Psychology 11 (2020): 1713.
- Qiu J., et al. “A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations”. General Psychiatry2 (2020).
- Gómez-Salgado J., et al. “Related health factors of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health11 (2020): 3947.
- McClain c. “Parents, their children, and school during the pandemic”. Pew Research Center: Internet, Science&Tech (2021).