Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 4

Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: Risk Factors, Disease Burden, Mortalities and Control

Ravi Kant Upadhyay*

Department of Zoology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, India

*Corresponding Author: Ravi Kant Upadhyay, Department of Zoology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, India.

Received: February 04, 2022; Published: March 28, 2022


Present review article described major NCDs, its causes, symptoms, complications, medication and prevention. This article explains major non communicable disease and complications of various CVDs i.e. strokes, arterial diseases, stress, alcoholism, narcotics, hypertension, cancer and blood pressure and other life style diseases. NCDs do clinical, mental, physical impairments in users, and these become either permanent or temporary. But most of them impose residual disability/chronic impairment and non reversible, non measurable pathological alterations. This article filters out important causes of NCDs like imbalances in diet structure, living facility, social awareness, cleanliness, and hospital care and medicine availability. There is a rising trend of alcoholic, narcotics and drug abuse in school going young population. Dietary patterns and physical disabilities are not normal and people are coming under extravagant consumerism. Today NCDs are major killer of people and there is an urgent need to make long term plan to aware, counsel and provide regular treatment to the sufferers. For quick action social, community, clinical-legal and treatment methods must include in planning and implement them across the world.

Keywords: Non-communicable Diseases; CVDs; Hypertension; Stroke; High Blood Pressure Alcoholism; Smoking and Drug Abuse


  1. Williams J., et al. “A systematic review of associations between non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic status within low- and lower-middle-income countries”. Journal of Global Health2 (2018): 020409.
  2. Cundale K., et al. “Reframing noncommunicable diseases and injuries for the poorest Malawians: the Malawi National NCDI Poverty Commission”. Malawi Medical Journal2 (2017): 194-197.
  3. , et al. “Global and Regional Patterns in Noncommunicable Diseases and Dietary Factors across National Income Levels”. Nutrients 13.10 (2021): 3595.
  4. Bromage S., et al. “Development and Validation of a Novel Food-Based Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS)”. Journal of Nutrition 151 (2021): 75S-92S.
  5. Caprara G., et al. “Mediterranean-Type Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity: The Winning Combination to Counteract the Rising Burden of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)”. Nutrients 2 (2021): 429.
  6. Akseer N., et al. “Non-communicable diseases among adolescents: current status, determinants, interventions and policies”. BMC Public Health 1 (2020): 1908.
  7. Bente M., et al. “Life course approach to prevention and control of non-communicable diseases”. BMJ 364 (2019): l257.
  8. Sivanantham P., et al. “Profile of risk factors for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in a highly urbanized district of India: Findings from Puducherry district-wide STEPS Survey, 2019-20”. PLoS One 1 (2021): e0245254.
  9. Budreviciute A., et al. “Management and Prevention Strategies for Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) and Their Risk Factors”. Frontiers in Public Health 8 (2020): 574111.
  10. Rogers HE., et al. “Legal capacities required for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2 (2019): 108-117.
  11. Savage A., et al. “Climate change and socioeconomic determinants are structural constraints to agency in diet-related non-communicable disease prevention in Vanuatu: a qualitative study”. BMC Public Health 1 (2021): 1231.
  12. Coates MM., et al. “Burden of non-communicable diseases from infectious causes in 2017: a modelling study”. Lancet Global Health12 (2020): e1489-e1498.
  13. Chen S and Bloom DE. “The macroeconomic burden of noncommunicable diseases associated with air pollution in China”. PLoS One4 (2019): e0215663.
  14. Kazibwe J., et al. “The household financial burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review”. Health Research Policy and Systems 1 (2021): 96.
  15. Goryakin Y., et al. “Assessing the future medical cost burden for the European health systems under alternative exposure-to-risks scenarios”. PLoS One9 (2020): e0238565.
  16. Kinoshita M., et al. “Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) Guidelines for Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases” 2017”. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 9 (2018): 846-984.
  17. Bray F., et al. “Comparing cancer and cardiovascular disease trends in 20 middle- or high-income countries 2000-19: A pointer to national trajectories towards achieving Sustainable Development goal target 3.4”. Cancer Treatment Review 100 (2021): 102290.
  18. Wang Y., et al. “Association of heart rate with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive and normotensive population: a nationwide prospective cohort study”. Annals of Translational Medicine's 11 (2021): 917.
  19. Roth GA., et al. “American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2021 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association”. Circulation8 (2021): e254-e743.
  20. Ashraf T., et al. “Global, regional, and national burden of stroke and its risk factors, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019”. Lancet Neurology10 (2021): 795-820.
  21. Videira RF., et al. Non-Coding RNAs as Blood-Based Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23 (2020): 9285.
  22. Zhou SS., et al. “miRNAS in cardiovascular diseases: potential biomarkers, therapeutic targets and challenges”. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 7 (2018): 1073-1084.
  23. Parsanathan R and Jain SK “Novel Invasive and Noninvasive Cardiac-Specific Biomarkers in Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases”. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 1 (2020): 10-30.
  24. Elkind MSV., et al. “American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2020 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association”. Circulation 9 (2020): e139-e596.
  25. Mendenhall E., et al. “Non-communicable disease syndemics: poverty, depression, and diabetes among low-income populations”. Lancet 10072 (2017): 951-963. 
  26. Haeusler KG., et al. “Impact of chronic inflammatory airway disease on stroke severity and long-term survival after ischemic stroke--a retrospective analysis”. BMC Neurology 15 (2015): 164.
  27. Boulanger M., et al. “Long-Term Risk of Myocardial Infarction Compared to Recurrent Stroke After Transient Ischemic Attack and Ischemic Stroke: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. Journal of the American Heart Association 2 (2018): e007267.
  28. Kronenberg G., et al. “Charting the perfect storm: emerging biological interfaces between stress and stroke”. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 6 (2017): 487-494.
  29. Ueno Y., et al. “Specific mechanisms of subarachnoid hemorrhage accompanied by ischemic stroke in essential thrombocythemia: two case reports and a literature review”. Journal of Neurology 8 (2019): 1869-1878.
  30. Seiffge DJ., et al. “Timing of anticoagulation after recent ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation”. Lancet Neurology1 (2019): 117-126.
  31. Samanta S., et al. “Cardiovascular care of patients with stroke and high risk of stroke: The need for interdisciplinary action: A consensus report from the European Society of Cardiology Cardiovascular Round Table”. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 7 (2020): 682-692.
  32. Doehner W., et al. “Cardiovascular care of patients with stroke and high risk of stroke: The need for interdisciplinary action: A consensus report from the European Society of Cardiology Cardiovascular Round Table”. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 7 (2020): 682-692.
  33. Jacob CM., et al. “Prevention of noncommunicable diseases by interventions in the preconception period: A FIGO position paper for action by healthcare practitioners”. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 151 (2020): 6-15.
  34. Chakraborty S., et al. “Metabolites and Hypertension: Insights into Hypertension as a Metabolic Disorder: 2019 Harriet Dustan Award”. Hypertension6 (2020): 1386-1396.
  35. Zhou B., et al. “Global epidemiology, health burden and effective interventions for elevated blood pressure and hypertension”. Nature Reviews Cardiology11 (2021): 785-802.

     36.  Manosroi W and Williams GH. “Genetics of Human Primary Hypertension: Focus on Hormonal Mechanisms”. Endocrine Review 40.3 (2019): 825-856.

  1. Rodriguez-Iturbe B., et al. “Role of the Immune System in Hypertension”. Physiology Review3 (2017): 1127-1164.
  2. Bonfrate L., et al. “A novel therapeutic effect of statins on nephrogenic diabetes insipidus”. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 2 (2015): 265-282.
  3. Fox CS., et al. “Update on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Light of Recent Evidence: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association”. Diabetes Care9 (2015).
  4. Wang CC., et al. “Clinical Update: Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus: Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Mechanisms, Management, and Clinical Considerations”. Circulation24 (2019): 2459-2502.
  5. Sanyoura M., et al. “Monogenic Diabetes in Children and Adolescents: Recognition and Treatment Options”. Current Diabetes Reports 8 (2018): 58.
  6. DeVito EE., et al. “Neural correlates of impulsivity in healthy males and females with family histories of alcoholism”. Neuropsychopharmacology10 (2013): 1854-1863.
  7. Thapa S., et al. “Time-Varying Effects of Parental Alcoholism on Depression”. Preventing Chronic Disease 14 (2017): E136.
  8. Enoch MA. “Genetic influences on the development of alcoholism”. Current Advances in Psychiatry 11 (2013): 412.
  9. Roseman E and Aring CD “The neurology of alcoholism”. California Medicine 1 (1947): 51-59.
  10. Moonat S and Pandey SC. “Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism”. Alcohol Research4 (2012): 495-505.
  11. Chu LF., et al. “From mouse to man: the 5-HT3 receptor modulates physical dependence on opioid narcotics”. Pharmacogenet Genomics3 (2009): 193-205.
  12. Grunkemeier DM., et al. “The narcotic bowel syndrome: clinical features, pathophysiology, and management”. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10 (2007): 1126-1122.
  13. Ko JY., et al. “CDC Grand Rounds: public health strategies to prevent neonatal abstinence syndrome”. MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (2017): 66.
  14. Cone EJ., et al. “Non-smoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke”. Urine screening and confirmation results”. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 1 (2015): 1-12.
  15. Coates MM., et al. “Burden of non-communicable diseases from infectious causes in 2017: a modelling study”. Lancet Global Health12 (2020): e1489-e1498.
  16. Cheza A., et al. “Incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in HIV patients on ART in a developing country: Case of Zimbabwe's Chitungwiza Central Hospital-A retrospective cohort study (2010-2019)”. PLoS One. 16.5 (2021): e0252180.
  17. Wesonga R., et al. “Burden of cumulative risk factors associated with non-communicable diseases among adults in Uganda: evidence from a national baseline survey”. International Journal for Equity in Health 15 (2016):
  18. Ojo TT., et al. “Exploring knowledge and attitudes toward non-communicable diseases among village health teams in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study”. BMC Public Health 17 (2017):
  19. Gupta N., et al. “Availability of equipment and medications for non-communicable diseases and injuries at public first-referral level hospitals: a cross-sectional analysis of service provision assessments in eight low-income countries”. BMJ Open10 (2020): e038842.
  20. Krishnan A., et al. “Preparedness of primary and secondary health facilities in India to address major noncommunicable diseases: results of a National Noncommunicable Disease Monitoring Survey (NNMS)”. BMC Health Service Research 21 (2021):
  21. Alexander Kintu., et al. “Integrating care for non‐communicable diseases into routine HIV services: key considerations for policy design in sub‐Saharan Africa”. Journal of the International AIDS Society 23 (2020): e25508.
  22. Wickramasinghe K., et al. “The development of national multisectoral action plans for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases: experiences of national-level stakeholders in four countries”. Global Health Action1 (2011): 1532632.
  23. McGrady B., et al. “Legal capacities required for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2 (2019): 108-117.


Citation: Ravi Kant Upadhyay. “Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: Risk Factors, Disease Burden, Mortalities and Control”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 6.4 (2022): 153-170.


Copyright: © 2022 Ravi Kant Upadhyay. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.403

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US