The Toxicity and Abortifacient Studies of Commelina benghalensis Leaves and Stalk in Wistar Rats
Chioma Njideka Adeyemi1*, Joseph Oloro2 and Clement Olusoji Ajayi3
1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
3Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
*Corresponding Author: Chioma Njideka Adeyemi, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.
November 22, 2021; Published: February 15, 2022
Scope of this paper is of Pharmacological relevance.
Introduction: The use of plants as a natural medicine has been attached to the culture of different ethnic groups and is practiced worldwide. Thus called traditional medicine, plays a vital role in today’s health-care services. These plants of medicinal value, could be cultivated, wild, weeds and vegetables.
Commelina benghalensis Linn is a common invasive weed found around homes, roadside, gardens and farmlands. It is a perennial plant with upward growing stalk, commonly used for self-induced abortion amongst other numerous ethnopharmacological uses in parts of Uganda and the world at large.
Abortion is common among females despite the fact that it is illegal and immoral. Self- induced abortions could lead to mortalities because of inadequacies of self-medication whether of traditional or conventional drugs. Medicinal plants have been used as abortifacients with some cases multiple organ system failures.
Objectives: This research, studied the acute-toxicity and the potential abortifacient activities of extracts of Commelina benghalensis Linn. leaves and stalk in female Wistar rats. Literature reveals that there has been no research done on the plants abortifacient claims.
Materials and Methods: The plant was collected, authenticated, dried, powdered and extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. The acute oral toxicity test was carried out on female Wistar rats, then median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract from each plant part were determined in vivo using OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) guidelines with help of AOT (Acute Oral Toxicity), 425 software. The extracts were thereafter concentrated in vacuo and tested in the animals at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses in the pregnant rats
Results: The acute toxicity test showed LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg. There was no observable toxicity symptom including respiratory distress, salivation, weight loss, dull eyes, diarrhoea and change in the appearance of fur in rats. Extracts of C. benghalensis showed abortifacient activity (33.33-100.00%) at 100 - 400 mg/kg with a significant reduction in the number of live foetus compared to the normal group.
Conclusion: There was no observation of any adverse effect or clinical toxicity symptoms in the treated Wistar rats. At the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of rat, the stalk decoction extract of C. benghalensis Linn was found to have the highest abortifacient activity (100% efficacy) when compared with the leaves extracts.
Keywords: Commelina benghalensis; Abortifacient; Toxicity; Traditional Medicine
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