Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 1

Phytochemical Examination and Antibacterial Activities of Thyme Leaves and their Use with Goat's Milk as a Traditional Remedy

Dheba Mohammed Abobaker1, Salem Mohamed Edrah2*, Sarah Jarood3, Hanan Alnade4, Wesam A Kollab4

1Chemistry Department, Science College, Alzawia University, Alzawia Libya
2Chemistry Department, Science College, ElMergib University, Al-Khums Libya
3Chemistry Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Study, ElMergib University, Al-Khums Libya
4Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alasmarya Islamic University, Zliten Libya

*Corresponding Author: Salem Mohamed Edrah, Chemistry Department, Science College, ElMergib University, Al-Khums Libya.

Received: October 29, 2021; Published: December 23, 2021;

Abstract

Plants are a source of a great abundance of drugs including several groups such as antimicrobials, anticancer, antispasmodics, etc. A large number of the plants are own antibiotic characteristics in conventional usage and are also utilised widely by the tribal people extensive.

Objectives: Thyme is one of the vital plants around the world because it contains various essential secondary metabolites which are considered as bioactive ingredients for the remedy of several diseases. The present study aimed to a qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of RE, preparation of a boiled mixture of thyme leaves and goat's milk TMGT as a traditional drug, and examination of the biological activity of each of RE and TMGT against some sorts of pathogenic bacteria.

Methodology: Preparation of Thyme-Milk Goat's Treatment (TMGT): where fresh wild thyme leaves were added to fresh goat's milk, and mixed very well, followed by added virgin olives oil with well mixing, and boiled a while, a thick, yellowish-oily liquid {Thyme-Milk Goat's Treatment (TMGT)} was obtained.

Preparation of Thyme Aqueous Raw Extract (RE): Where a coarsely fine powdered of thyme leaves was extracted with appropriated solvent by using soxhlet extractor apparatus.

Results: Percentage Yields: The percentage yields of RE were 89%, while the pH for RE and TGMT were 6.7 and 7.3, individually, and the acid value of raw goat’s milk was 6.7g.

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening: The preliminary phytochemical screening of thyme aqueous crude extract revealed the presence of plentiful amounts of bioactive ingredients, which are tannins, phenols, Fats and Fixed oils, Amino acids alkaloid, flavonoids and steroids and triterpenoids.

Quantitative Phytochemical Investigation: The percentage yields obtained from the leaves regarding quantitative phytochemical investigation were 81, 72 and 90 % for Flavonoids Alkaloids and Saponins, separately.

Antibacterial: The thyme aqueous raw extract (RE) was tested against each of the bacterial; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus, were revealed 19, 20, 21, 19 and 23 mm, correspondingly. However, the TMGT showed 23, 22, 25, 24 and 25 mm consistently.

Keywords: Thymus vulgaris L.; Thyme-Milk Goat's Treatment; Phytochemical Screening; Pathogenic Bacterial

References

  1. Front Matter. “Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book)”. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry (2014): 691.
  2. Ultee A., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol toward Bacillus cereus on rice”. Journal of Food Protection5 (2000): 620-624.
  3. Vladić J., et al. “Winter savoury: Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and mathematical modelling of extraction process”. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 117 (2016): 89-97.
  4. Andersen A. “Final report on the safety assessment of sodium p-chloro-m-cresol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorothymol, mixed cresols, m-cresol, o-cresol, p-cresol, isopropyl cresols, thymol, o-cymen-5-ol, and carvacrol”. International Journal of Toxicology 25 (2006): 29-127.
  5. Coronavirus disease (covid-19) pandemic 17 (2020): 2690.
  6. Bedford J., et al. “For the WHO Strategic and technical advisory group for infectious hazards”. COVID-19: towards controlling a pandemic”. Lancet10229 (2020): 1015e1018.
  7. Dorman HJ and Deans SG. “Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils”. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 (2000): 308-316.
  8. Singh N., et al. “Efficacy of chlorine dioxide, ozone, and thyme essential oil or a sequential washing in killing Escherichia Coli O157:H7 on lettuce and baby carrots”. LWT - Food Science and Technology 35 (2002): 720-729.
  9. Moreira MR., et al. “Inhibitory parameters of essential oils to reduce a foodborne pathogen”. LWT- Food Science and Technology 38 (2005): 565-570.
  10. Ferrell and John Atkinson. “The Rural School and Hookworm Disease”. The US. Bureau of Education Bulletin. No. 20, Whole No. 593, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1914).
  11. Taitz LS and Armitage BL. “Goats’ milk for infants and children”. British Medical Journal of Clinical Research Education 288 (1984): 428-429.
  12. Harbourne JB. “Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Technique of Plant Analysis”. 2nd edition London: Chapman and Hall Ltd (1998): 282.
  13. Sofowara A. “Medicinal plants and Traditional medicine in Africa”. Spectrum Books Ltd, Ibadan, Nigeria (1993): 289.
  14. Mace MD. “Histochemical localization of phenols in healthy and diseased tomato roots”. Phytopathology 16 (1963): 915-925.
  15. Evans WC. “Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy”. Harcourt Brace and company. Asia Pvt. Ltd.Singapore (1997).
  16. Kokate CK. “Practical pharmacognosy” 4th edition, Vallabh Prakashan Publication, New Delhi, India (1999).
  17. Yasuma A and Ichikawa. “Ninhydrin-Schiff and alloxan-Schiff Staining; New histochemical staining methods for proteins”. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 41 (1953): 296-299.
  18. Culvenor CCJ and Fitzgerald JS. “A field method for alkaloid screening of plants”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 52 (2018): 303-304.
  19. James E., et al. “Pharmacognosy and pharmacobiotechnology”. Williams and Wilkins, New York, U.S.A (1996).
  20. Evans WC. “Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy”. Elsevier Health Sciences (2009).
  21. BA Boham and AR Kocipai. “Flavonoids and condensed Tannins from Leaves of Hawaiian Vaccinium vaticulatum and V. calycinium”. Pacific Science 48 (1994): 458-463.
  22. Harborne JB. “Phytochemical methods”. London. Chapman and Hall, Ltd (1973): 49-188.
  23. Trease G E and Evans W C. “Pharmacognosy”. 11th Brailliar Tiridel Can. Macmillian publishers (1989).
  24. CM Ejikeme., et al. “Determination of physical and phytochemical constituents of some tropical timbers indigenous to Niger Delta Area of Nigeria”. European Scientific Journal18 (2014): 247-270.
  25. Gulluce M., et al. “Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oils and methanol extract from Mentha longifolia ssp. Longifolia”. Food Chemistry 103.4 (2007): 1449-1456.
  26. Rahmoun NM., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal screening of four medicinal plants”. Journal of Coast Life Medicine12 (2014): 975-979.
  27. “22 Amazing benefits and uses of Thyme”. Health Beckon (2014).
  28. Oakenfull DG and Sidhu GS. “Could saponins be a useful treatment for hypercholesterolemia?” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44 (1990): 79-88.
  29. Barłowska J and Litwińczuk Z. “Nutritional and pro-health properties of milk fat”. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 65 (2009): 171-174.
  30. Lambert RJW., et al. “A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol”. Journal of Applied Microbiology 91 (2001): 453-462.
  31. Sivropoulou A., et al. “Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Origanum essential oils”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44 (1996): 1202-1205.
  32. Guillén MD and Manzanos MJ. “Study of the composition of the different parts of a Spanish Thymus vulgaris plant”. Food Chemistry 63 (1998): 373-383.
  33. Mangena T and Muyima NY. “Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of Artemisia Afra, Petronia incana and Rosmarinus officinalis on selected bacteria and yeast strains”. Letters in Applied Microbiology 28 (1999): 291-296.

Citation

Citation: Salem Mohamed Edrah., et al. “Phytochemical Examination and Antibacterial Activities of Thyme Leaves and their Use with Goat's Milk as a Traditional Remedy". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 6.1 (2021): 259-269.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2021 Salem Mohamed Edrah., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.403

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US