Viral Hepatitis B Seroprevalence Among Pregnant Women in Tlemcen
H Brahimi1,3* and DJ Bacha2
1Infectious Disease Department, University Hospital Center, Tlemcen, Algeria
2Infectious Disease Department, Ain Naadja Military Hospital, Algiers, Algeria
3Faculty of Medicine, University of Abu Bakr Belkaid, Tlemcen, Algeria
*Corresponding Author: H Brahimi, Infectious Disease Department, University Hospital Center, Tlemcen, Algeria.
November 08, 2021; Published: December 13, 2021
The epidemiology of viral hepatitis B in pregnancy is not precisely known in Algeria, although it is of primary importance to health planners and program managers. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of these infections in the population of pregnant women. This is a prospective longitudinal study carried out at the level of the mother-child specialized hospital and mother-child protection centers in the region of Tlemcen. This study lasted 30 months (January 2013 to June 2015), and recruited 2165 pregnant women. The seroprevalence of HBs Ag in pregnant women was 1.8%. The mean maternal age of HBs Ag positive patients was 30.38 ± 5.9 years, with the most affected age group of 30-39 years with 51.28%. There was no statistically significant association between age or socio-demographic factors (level of education, marital status, surgical procedures, previous hospitalization, previous transfusions, dental care, history of sexually transmitted infections or scarifications, gestational age) and HBs Ag status. On the other hand, other socio demographic factors such as parity (P = 0.014), professional activity (P = 0.031), history of jaundice (P = 0.014), mode of delivery (P = 0.012), piercing (P = 0.034), intravenous drug addiction (P = 0.005), vagrancy (P = 0.02), and family history of hepatitis B (P < 0.001) were associated with HBsAg carriage. Chronic mutant carriers (87.2%) vs. 12.8% chronic wild-type. These results encourage the screening of viral hepatitis B in pregnant women in order to prevent vertical transmission of this virus. These results encourage screening for viral hepatitis B in pregnant women in order to prevent vertical transmission of this virus.
Keywords: Viral Hepatitis B; Pregnancy; Prevalence; Risk Factors
- Ott JJ., et al. “The risk of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission : hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) prevalence estimates for all world regions”. BMC Infect Dis 12 (2012): 131.
- Aspinall EJ., et al. “Hepatitis B prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care: A review”. Occupational medicine8 (2011): 531-40.
- Khan Salman., et al. “Hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant women and transmission to newborns”. Asian Pac J Too Say 5.6 (2015): 421-429
- S., et al. “National sero-epidemiological survey of Ag HBS in Algeria”. (1998).
- Bensalem A. “Prevalence of HBs Ag and detection of HBV-DNA in pregnant women in the Algiers region” (2010).
- Aidaoui M., et al. “Seroprevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in the region of Annaba (Algeria)”. Journal of epidemiology and public health 56: 261-266.
- Ranger-Rogez S., et al. “Hepatitis viruses : mother-to-child transmission”. Pathology Biology 50 (2002): 568-575.
- Ayed Z., et al. “Prevalence of serum markers of hepatitis B and C in blood donors and pregnant women in Algeria”. Bull Soc Pathol Exot5 (1995): 225-8.
- El-Magrahe H., et al. “Maternal and neonatal seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in Tripoli, Libya”. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries3 (2010): 168-170.
- Sbiti M. “HBsAg seroprevalence in pregnant women in central Morocco”. The Pan African Medical Journal 24 (2016): 187.
- Hannachi N., et al. “Viral hepatitis B in Tunisian pregnant women : risk factors and interest in the study of viral replication in the case of negative HBe antigen”. Pathology Biology3 (2009): 43-47.
- Mansour W., et al. “Virological and epidemiological features of hepatitis delta infection among blood donors in Nouakchott, Mauritania”. Journal of Clinical Virology 55 (2012): 12-6.
- Zahran KM., et al. “Pattern of hepatitis virus infection among pregnant women and their newborns at the Women's Health Center of Assiut University, Upper Egypt”. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 111 (2010): 171-174.
- Al-Shamahy H. “Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and risk factors of HBV infection in a sample of healthy mothers and their infants in Sana’a, Yemen”. Annals of Saudi Medicine 20 (2000): 464-467.
- Itoua-Ngaporo A., et al. “Prevalence of hepatitis B viral markers in a population of pregnant women in Brazzaville (Congo)”. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology5 (1995): 534-536.
- Makuwa M., et al. “Prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis B and delta viruses in pregnant women in Gabon : molecular evidence that hepatitis delta virus clade 8 originates from and is endemic in central Africa”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46 (2008): 754-756.
- Nacro B., et al. “HBs antigen carrier state in pregnant women in Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)”. Dakar Medical2 (2000): 188-190.
- Mamadou S., et al. “HIV infection and hepatitis B seroprevalence among antenatal clinic attendees in Niger, West Africa”. HIV AIDS (Auckl) 4 (2012): 1-4.
- Fomulu NJ., et al. “Prevalence, correlates and pattern of Hepatitis B among antenatal clinic attenders in Yaounde-Cameroon : is perinatal transmission of HBV neglected in Cameroon?” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 13(2013): 158.
- Candotti D., et al. “Maternofetal transmission of hepatitis B virus genotype E in Ghana, west Africa”. Journal of General Virology 88 (2007): 2686-2695.
- Touré-Fall AO., et al. “Residual risk of transmission of HIV and HBV, in Senegalese national blood bank from 2003 to 2005”. Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 16 (2009): 439-443.
- Madzime S., et al. “Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare Zimbabwe, 1996 to 1997”. Central African Journal of Medicine8 (1999): 195-198.
- Nardiello S., et al. “Infezione da HBV in gravidanza HBV and pregnancy”. The Infezioni in Medicina 3 (2011): 139-146.
- Denis F., et al. “Screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B markers in a French Provincial University Hospital (Limoges) during 15 years”. European Journal of Epidemiology 19 (2004): 973-978.
- Bonura F., et al . “Pregnant women as a sentinel population to target and implement hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage: a three-year survey in Palermo, Sicily”. Vaccine 23 (2005): 3243-3246.
- Panagopoulos P., et al. “Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in the maternity department in a Greek district hospital”. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 16 (2004): 106-110.
- Godbole G., et al. “Management of hepatitis B in pregnant women and infants: a multicentre audit from four London hospitals”. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 13 (2013): 222.
- Harder KM., et al. “Universal screening for hepatitis B among pregnant women led to 96% vaccination coverage among newborns of HBs Ag positive mothers in Denmark”. Vaccine 29.50 (2011): 9303-9307.
- Bacq Y. “Viral hepatitis B and Pregnancy”. Clinical and biological gastroenterology 32 (2008): S12 - S19.
- Sekkat M. “Prevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women : preliminary results of a study prospective conducted at Hassan II University Hospital Fez Morocco About 156 cases”. Specialist diploma thesis (2010).
- Tan H-H., et al. “Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnancy”. Hepatology International 2 (2008): 370-375.
- Gunardi H., et al. “Current Prevalence of Hepatitis B Infection among Parturient Women in Jakarta, Indonesia”. The Indonesian Journal of Internal Medicine 46.1 (2014).
- Dwivedi M., et al. “Seroprevalence of hepatitis B infection during pregnancy and risk of perinatal transmission”. Indian J Gastroenterol2: 66-71.
- Eke AC., et al. “Prevalence, correlates and pattern of hepatitis B surface antigen in a low resource setting”. Virology Journal 8 (2011): 12
- Sbai A., et al. HBV genotypes in Morocco. Journal of clinical virology 38 (2007): 184-185.
- Romanò L., et al. “The changing face of the epidemiology of type A, B, and D viral hepatitis in Italy, following the implementation of vaccination”. Vaccine 27 (2009): 3439-3442.
- El-Karaksy HM., et al. “Applicability and efficacy of a model for prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection: Single center study in Egypt”. World J Gastroenterol45 (2014): 17075-17083.
- Noubiap JJ., et al. “Prevalence, infectivity and correlates of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in a rural district of the Far North Region of Cameroon”. BMC Public Health 15 (2015): 454.
- El Sheikh RM., et al. “Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in pregnant Sudanese women”. Virology Journal 4 (2007): 104.
- Michault A., et al. “Prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C virus markers in Reunion Island (South hospital and Saint Pierre prison)”. Bull Soc Pathol Exot1 (2000): 34-40.
- Ilboudo D., et al. “Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso”. Med Trop 62 (2002): 99-100.
- Sangaré L., et al. “Antenatal transmission of the hepatitis B virus in an area of moderate HIV prevalence, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso”. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 102.4 (2009): 226-229.