Acta Scientific Computer Sciences

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 6

Enhancing Data Collection Efficiency in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Contention-Free Pipelined Scheduling (CFPS) MAC Protocol

Amwine Louis1, Abdul Rehman2 and Ganesh Kumar3

1Faculty of Computing and Informatics, Department of Computer Science, Uganda
2School of Computer Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, South Korea
3Department of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, India

*Corresponding Author: Ganesh Kumar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, India.

Received: May 08, 2024; Published: May 14, 2024

Abstract

The inherent features of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) such as a high latency, limited band width, high bit error and a long propagation delay associated with underwater acoustic communication enable multiple transmitters at varying distances from the receiver to transmit simultaneously. Many of the existing Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols available utilize these features, most especially the high latency feature to reduce data collection time. However, most of the MAC protocols utilise contention-based mechanisms and this causes transmission collisions as the number of nodes increase. The transmission collisions (control and data packet collisions) at the MAC layer, lead to energy waste. It is infeasible to replace the node battery in the UWSNs. Packet collisions need to be avoided at the MAC layer so as to reduce node energy waste, thereby improving the throughput and fairness of the network. In order to mitigate these challenges, we propose a Contention-Free Pipelined Scheduling (CFPS) MAC protocol based on Energy-efficient Duty cycling that reduces node energy waste and data collection time in a single-hop network. The core idea of CFPS involves developing a collision-free transmission scheduling table that the receiver node uses to collect data packets during its awake time. The CFPS protocol is expected to reduce data collection time and improve network throughput when compared to the well-designed data collection protocols like, RI-MAC, DAP-MAC, RHNE-MAC, and NF-TDMA. Extensive simulation results indicate that the CFPS protocol outperform the existing solutions on various network parameters like latency reduction and node energy conservation.

Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); Media Access Control (MAC); Receiver-Initiated; Duty Cycling; Contention Free Pipeline Scheduling

References

  1. T He., et al. “VigilNet: An Integrated Sensor Network System for Energy-Efficient Surveillance”. ACM Trans. Sensor Networks 1 (2006): 1-38.
  2. G Werner-Allen., et al. “Fidelity and Yield in a Volcano Monitoring Sensor Network”. Proc. Seventh Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI), (2006).
  3. G Wittenburg., et al. “Fence Monitoring—Experimental Evaluation of a Use Case for Wireless Sensor Networks”. Proc. Fourth European Conf. Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN), (2007).
  4. J Koo., et al. “A Tale of Two Synchronizing Clocks”. Proc. Seventh ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), (2009).
  5. M Garcia., et al. “Underwater wireless ad-hoc networks: A survey”. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends (2011): 379-411.
  6. S H Ahmed., et al. “EENC-energy efficient nested clustering in UASN”. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (2014): 706-710.
  7. S Rani., et al. “Energy efficient chain based routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks”. Journal of Network and Computer Applications 92 (2017): 42-50.
  8. J Heidemann., et al. “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking”. In Wireless communications and networking conference (2006).
  9. W Ye., et al. “An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks”. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (2002): 1567-1576.
  10. Rehman S., et al. “An algorithm for alleviating the effect of hotspot on throughput in wireless sensor networks”. in 2017 IEEE 42nd Conference on Local Computer Networks Workshops (LCN Workshops) (2017): 170-174.
  11. M Buettner., et al. “XMAC: A short preamble MAC protocol for duty-cycled wireless sensor networks”. In SenSys (2006): 307-320.
  12. LFM Vieira., et al. “Analysis of ALOHA Protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks”. In the Proceedings of first ACM International Workshop Underwater Networks (WUWNet) (2006).
  13. N Chirdchoo., et al. “ALOHA-based MAC Protocols with Collision Avoidance for Underwater Acoustic Networks”. In Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), (2007): 2271-2275, Anchorage, AK, USA.
  14. MK Park and V Rodoplu. “UWAN-MAC: An energy-efficient mac protocol for underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks”. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 32 (2007): 710-720.v
  15. AA Syed., et al. “T-Lohi: A New Class of MAC Protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks”. In Proceedings of the 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), Phoenix, AZ, USA, 13-18 (2008): 789-797.
  16. Wei Ye., et al. “An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks”. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (2002): 1567-1576.
  17. J Polastre., et al. “low power media access for wireless sensor networks”. In SenSys ’04 (2004): 95-107.
  18. M Buettner., et al. “XMAC:A short preamble MAC protocol for duty-cycled wireless sensor networks”. In SenSys (2006): 307-320.
  19. El-Hoiydi and Jean-Dominique Decotignie. “WiseMAC: An ultra low power MAC protocol for multi-hop wireless sensor networks”. In ALGOSENSORS (2004): 18-31.
  20. Y Sun., et al. “RI-MAC: A receiver initiated asynchronous duty cycle MAC protocol for dynamic traffic loads in wireless sensor networks”. In SenSys (2008).
  21. P Casari and M Zorzi. “Protocol design issues in underwater acoustic networks”. In Computer Communications 17 (2011): 2013-2025.
  22. M Stojanovic. “On the Relationship between Capacity and Distance in an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel”. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks, Los Angeles, CA, USA (2010): 41-47.
  23. F Batool., et al. “A Query-Based Greedy Approach for Authentic Influencer Discovery in SIoT”. Computers, Materials and Continua3 (2023).
  24. X Lurton. “An Introduction to Underwater Acoustics: Principles and Applications”. Springer-Praxis: London, UK (2002).
  25. M Molins and M Stojanovic. “Slotted FAMA: A MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Networks”. In the Proceedings of the IEEE OCEANS (2006): 1-7.
  26. X Guo., et al. “Design of a Propagation-DelayTolerant MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks”. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering (2009): 170-180.
  27. HH Ng., et al. “ROPA: A MAC protocol for underwater acoustic networks with reverse opportunistic packet appending”. In Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) (2010): 1-6.
  28. Y Noh., et al. “DOTS: A Propagation Delay-aware Opportunistic MAC Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks”. In Proceedings of the 18th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP), Kyoto, Japan (2010): 183-192.
  29. Amwine L., et al. “RIED-MAC: Receiver-initiated MAC based on energy-efficient duty cycling for UWSNs”. In 2018 OCEANS-MTS/IEEE Kobe Techno-Oceans (OTO) (2018): 1-5.
  30. P Casari and M Zorzi. “Protocol design issues in underwater acoustic networks”. In Computer Communications 34.17 (2011): 2013-2025.
  31. J Yackoski and CC Shen. “UW-FLASHR: Achieving High Channel Utilization in a Time-based Acoustic MAC Protocol”. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM international workshop on Underwater Networks (2008): 59-66.
  32. C Hsu., et al. “ST-MAC: Spatial-Temporal MAC Scheduling for Underwater Sensor Networks”. in the Proceedings of 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), Rio de Janeiro (2009): 1827-1835.
  33. K Kredo., et al. “STUMP: Exploiting Position Diversity in the Staggered TDMA Underwater MAC Protocol”. in the Proceedings of 28th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), Rio de Janeiro (2009): 2961-2965.
  34. K Kredo., et al. “Distributed Scheduling and Routing in Underwater Wireless Networks”. Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference GLOBECOM 2010, Miami, FL, USA, (2010): 1-6.
  35. WH Liao., et al. “A Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocol with Packet Train Design for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks”. in Wireless Personal Communications 82 (2015): 2155-2170.
  36. WH Liao., et al. “A receiver-initiated MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks”. in Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN 14) (2014): 1-6.
  37. Z Liao., et al. “A handshake based ordered scheduling MAC protocol for underwater acoustic local area networks”. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks (2015): 15.
  38. I Choi and D Kim. “ES-MAC: Energy-Driven Scheduling Scheme in Asynchronous Duty Cycle MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks”. IIISC 2012, Chiamg Mai, Thailand (2012).

Citation

Citation: Ganesh Kumar., et al. “Enhancing Data Collection Efficiency in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Contention-Free Pipelined Scheduling (CFPS) MAC Protocol".Acta Scientific Computer Sciences 6.6 (2024): 20-28.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2024 Ganesh Kumar., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In




News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US