Acta Scientific Applied Physics (ASAP)

Research Article Volume 2 Issue 3

Equations and Equivalences in Physics

Gudrun Kalmbach HE*

MINT, PF 1533, D-86818 Bad Woerishofen, Germany

*Corresponding Author: Gudrun Kalmbach HE, MINT, PF 1533, D-86818 Bad Woerishofen, Germany.

Received: January 17, 2022; Published: February 24, 2022


Physics use equations without mentioning the equivalence relations on sets which produce them. For different purposes [1] they belong to factor algebras, projective scalings, topological equivalences. Examples: λp = λmv = h, λ wave length, p momentum, m ma ss, v speed, h Planck constant. Using Pauli spin matrices, σ1 can stand for wave length, multiplication with the h scaled identity id matrix gives the scalar h. The (scaled) unit eigenvectors of the two span a rectangle of this area. Similarly for the angle - angular momentum Heisenberg uncertainty [17] φJ = h and E =hf for energy with matrix α and f-1 (inverse frequency) with α2 space the area h. The matrix σ1 is in the first cases substituted by scalar values. The formulas generate through noncommutativity inequalities with lower h-bounds where one member (either a coordinate or an energy) is measured unsharp in case the other is measured more precise.

Keywords: Equivalence; Equation; Color Charge; Measuring GF Triples; Unit Spheres


  1. Kalmbach G. Archives Kalmbach H.E. 1967-2001 (many books and Unifikate concerning the scientific and educational work of Gudrun Kalmbach H.E.) (2001).
  2. Kalmbach G. ‘‘Proceedings of the Lattice Theory Conference”. Universitaet Ulm (1975).
  3. Kalmbach G. “Orthomodular Lattices”. Academic Press, London (1983).
  4. Kalmbach HEG. Tag der Mathematik, Begleithefte Baden-Wuerttemberg, 1985-2001 (2001).
  5. Kalmbach G. “Measures and Hilbert Lattices”. World Scientific Publishers, Singapore (1986).
  6. Kalmbach G. Diskrete Mathematik, Vieweg, Wiesbaden (1988).
  7. Kalmbach HEG. “Talent Development in Mathematics”. Science and Technology I, II, Aegis-Verlag, Ulm, 1989/1990.
  8. Kalmbach HEG. “Quantum Structures 1,2, in”. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 1991 (1992).
  9. Kalmbach G. Fragebogen zur Frauenfoerderung in Mathematik, 1991-1994, Universitaet Ulm, with articles, evaluation and discussions, in: MINT 39 (1994).
  10. Kalmbach G. (with Martin Grimm editions.), Skripte, for local MINT Courses, Universitaet Ulm, 1993-1999.
  11. Kalmbach G. Mathematik - bunt gemischt 1,2, (2 with R. Schweizer), Becker Verlag, Velten (1996).
  12. Kalmbach G. MINT (Mathematik, Informatik, Naturwissenschaften, Technik), Aegis-Verlag Ulm and MINT Verlag Bad Woerishofen 1-60 1997-2021.
  13. Kalmbach G Geometrie. Gruppen und Logik, Universitaet Ulm, Lecture Notes (1998): 1-126.
  14. Kalmbach G. Quantum Measures and Spaces, Kluwer, Dordrecht (1998).
  15. G Kalmbach. Animation (programmer: S. Knupfer), internet open access 2000-2010.
  16. G Kalmbach. Quantum Mathematics, RGN Publishers, Delhi (2015).
  17. G Kalmbach. MINT-Wigris, Scholars' Press, Beau Bassin (2017).
  18. G Kalmbach. H.E. with U. Eberspaecher, MINT-Wigris Tool Bag and handbook (page numbers belowfor the content), Bad Woerishofen,, contents: MINT-Wigris E-Tools Models are and Color charges of Quarks as complex Force 1, 2 6 roll mill 3, Quark 5,SI rotor and blue vectors oscillation 7,Gravity and its stretching-squeezing 9,Fusion 15,Spin/magnetic momentum positions and the neutral leptons case 17, Electromagnetism 20,Electromagnetic Interaction, Lissajous and Dihedrals 23,Heegard Decompositions 26,Energy Exchange 28,Quanta Measuring 30,Dark Universe 3, Symmetry Breaking and Catastrophes 35 (2019).


Citation: Gudrun Kalmbach HE.“Equations and Equivalences in Physics". Acta Scientific Applied Physics 2.3 (2022): 07-11.


Copyright: © 2022 Gudrun Kalmbach HE. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.014

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 20, 2023.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US