Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Research Article Volume 8 Issue 6

Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the surface sediments of Neyyar River- Kerala, South India

Prasanna Kumari AA1*, Ganga Devi T2 and Jayaraman PR2

1Department of Garden Management Division, KSCSTE- Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
2H.H. The Maharaja’s University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

*Corresponding Author: Prasanna Kumari AA, Department of Garden Management Division, KSCSTE- Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Received: April 16, 2024; Published: May 23, 2024


Neyyar River (Latitude 80 16’ to 80 40’ N and Longitude 770 5’ to 770 16’ E) with 56 Km length originating from the Agasthyamala, flows through the midland, low land and joins with the Lakshadweep Sea at Poovar Pozhi. Neyyar is the primary source of drinking water supply to entire Neyyattinkara taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala. Study focused on the analyses of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Neyyar River and samples were collected from 10 previously identified station locations of the River for a period of one year and subjected for different heavy metal analysis. The study sites were categorized into fresh water zone (stations 1-8) and estuarine (9-10) zone depending on saline influence. Dried and powdered sediment samples are extracted using acid digestion method with concentrated nitric acid and perchloric acid (4:1 ratio). Analyses of various heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium and lead were done using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Decrease in concentrations was observed in the estuarine zone for all five metals analyzed. Among them cadmium and lead showed comparatively higher concentration than internationally accepted standard values indicating the contaminative nature of the river sediments with respect to cadmium and lead. However, copper, zinc and chromium reported remained within the accepted standard values for particular metals. Spatial and temporal variations remained significant for all metals except copper where only monthwise variations were significant. Sediment contamination was assessed by enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index, and observed that sediments in Neyyar River are moderately contaminated.

Keywords: Contamination; Anthropogenic; Autochthonous; Spatial; Temporal


  1. Singh M. “Heavy metal pollution in freshly deposited sediments of the Yamuna River (the Ganges River tributary): a case study from Delhi and Agra urban centres, India”. Environmental Geography 40 (2001): 664-671.
  2. Kumar A and Kalsotra BL. “Geochemistry of River and Lake Sediment of Garhwal Himalayas, Uttar Pradesh”. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection 10 (2001): 887-898.
  3. Anilakumary KS., et al. “Sediment characteristics of Poonthura estuary (south west coast of India) in relation to pollution”. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 30 (2001): 75-80.
  4. Achyuthan H and Mohan D. “Trace metal concentrations in the sediment cores of estuary and tidal; zones between Chennai and Pondicherry, along the east coast of India”. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 2 (2002): 141-149.
  5. Rajasegar M., et al. “Distribution of sediment nutrients of Vellar estuary in relation to shrimp farming”. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 2 (2002): 153-156.
  6. Panda DS and Sahu DS. “Heavy metal pollution in a tropical lagoon Chilika lake”. Indian Journal of Environment and Ecoplanning 1 (2002): 39-43.
  7. Mermi SD and Machiwa JF. “Heavy metal contamination of mangrove sediment and associated biota in DAR ES SALAAM, Tanzania”. Tanzania Journal of Science 1 (2003): 61-75.
  8. Manjappa S., et al. “Heavy metal distribution in Water and Sediments of the River Bhadra near Bhadravathi town, Karnataka-India”. Pollution Research2 (2005): 447-450.
  9. Raman DJ., et al. “Trace metal enrichments in core sediments in Muthupet mangroves, SE coast of India: application of acid leachable technique”. Environmental Pollution 145 (2007): 245-257.
  10. Wang S., et al. “Fractionation of heavy metals in shallow marine sediments from Jinzhou Bay, China”. Journal of Environmental Sciences1 (2010): 23-31.
  11. Marathea RB., et al. “Detection of trace metals in surface sediment of Tapti River: A case study”. Scholars Research Library Archives of Applied Science Research2 (2011): 472-476.
  12. Sudhanandh VS., et al. “Dispersion and Accumulation Trend of Heavy Metals in Coastal and Estuarine Sediments and its Textural Characteristics, a Case Study in India”. Journal of Human Ecology 2 (2011): 85-90.
  13. Chakraborty D., et al. “Heavy metal pollution and Phytoremediation potential of Avicennia officinalis L. in the southern coast of the Hoogly estuarine system”. International Journal of Environmental Sciences6 (2013): 2013.
  14. Astatkie H., et al. “Contamination of Stream Sediment with Heavy Metals in the Awetu Watershed of Southwestern Ethiopia”. Frontiers in Earth Science (2021).
  15. Basooma A., et al. “Trace metal concentrations in the abiotic and biotic components of River Rwizi ecosystem in western Uganda, and the risks to human health”. Heliyon 7 (2021): e08327.
  16. Desiree NTS., et al. “Risk assessment of trace metals in Mefou River sediments, West-Africa”. Heliyon 7 (2021): e08606.
  17. Nishitha D., et al. “Study of trace metal contamination and ecological risk assessment in the sediments of a tropical river estuary, Southwestern India”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 194 (2022): 94.
  18. Dante SM., et al. “Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment in Lake Rinconada in the Southern Andes, Peru”. Pollution 2 (2023): 477-493.
  19. APHA/AWWA/WEF. “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 23rd Edition, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Denver (2017).
  20. Samantha S. “Impact assessment of heavy metals in Indian rivers- River Ganga. Proceedings of Summer school on Environment Impact Assessment of Inland Waters for Sustainable Fisheries Management and Conservation of Biodiversity: CIFRI, Barrackpore (2000): 117-124.
  21. Topi T., et al. “Heavy metals in soil, sediments, mussels, and water from butrinti lagoon (albania)”. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin10a (2012): 3042-3051.
  22. Zarei I., et al. “An assessment of metal contamination risk in sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve, southern Iran with a focus on application of pollution indicators”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (2014).
  23. Sim SF., et al. “Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment, and Fishes of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam in Sarawak, Malaysia”. Journal of Chemistry (2016): 10.
  24. Xu F., et al. “Assessment of heavy metal contamination in urban river sediments in the Jiaozhou Bay catchment, Qingdao, China”. Catena 150 (2016): 9-16.
  25. Zarezadeh R., et al. “Distribution and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Sediments of the Northern Part of Mangrove in Hara Biosphere Reserve, Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf)”. Soil and Water Research2 (2017): 86-95.
  26. Suresh G., et al. “Assessment of spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of the heavy metals in relation to granulometric contents of Veeranam lake sediments, India”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 84 (2012): 117-124.
  27. Islama MS., et al. “Assessment of trace metal contamination in water and sediment of some Rivers in Bengladesh”. Journal of Water and Environment Technology2 (2015): 109-121.
  28. Pan L., et al. “Potentially Toxic Element Pollution Levels and Risk Assessment of Soils and Sedim”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2364 (2018).
  29. Subramanian V., et al. “Chemical composition of river sediments from the Indian sub-continent”. Chemical Geology 48 (1985): 271-279.
  30. Taylor R. “Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: a new table”. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 28 (1964): 1273-1285.
  31. Turekian KK and KH Wedepohl. “Distribution of the elements in some major units of earth’s crust”. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 72 (1961): 175-191.
  32. Biksham G and Subramanian V. “Elemental composition of Godavari sediments (Central and southern Indian subcontinent)”. Chemical Geology 70 (1988): 275-286.
  33. Dutta S and Saxena S. “Spatial distribution and level of occurrence of nutrients and heavy metals in the sediments of Hoogly river”. Pollution Research 4 (2004): 833-835.
  34. Ekeanyanwu CR., et al. “Trace Metals Distribution in Fish Tissues, Bottom Sediments and Water from Okumeshi River in Delta State, Nigeria”. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management3 (2010): 12-17.
  35. Bertin C and Bourg ACM. “Trends in the heavy metal content (Cd, Pb, Zn) in the drainage basin of smelting activities”. Water Research 7 (1995): 1729-1736.
  36. Coquery M and Welbourn PM. “The relationship between metal concentration and organic matter in sediments and metal concentration in the aquatic macrophyte Eriocaulon septagulare”. Water Research 9 (1995): 2094-2102.
  37. Drusilla R., et al. “Assessment of Minerals in River Chittar in and around Tenkasi, Tirunelveli District (Tamil Nadu)”. Pollution Research 2 (2006): 309-316.
  38. Venugopal P., et al. “Trace metal levels in the sediments of the Cochin backwaters”. Mahasagar-Bull Natn Inst Oceanogr 15 (1982): 205-214.
  39. Müller G. “Die Schwermetallbelstung der sedimente des Neckars und seiner Nebenflusse: eine Bestandsaufnahme”. Chemiker-Zeitung 105 (1981): 157-164.


Citation: Prasanna Kumari AA., et al. “Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the surface sediments of Neyyar River- Kerala, South India". Acta Scientific Agriculture 8.6 (2024): 22-32.


Copyright: © 2024 Prasanna Kumari AA., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.014

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US