Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 12

Predicting Total Suspended Solids from Turbidity for different types of Soil Particles

Blessy VA1*, Mukesh Kumar2, CK Saxena2 and Ajita Gupta2

1Division of Agricultural Engineering, ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow, India
2Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Division, ICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, India

*Corresponding Author: Blessy VA, Division of Agricultural Engineering, ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Received: August 01, 2023; Published: November 27, 2023


Physical, chemical, and biological factors are used in water quality assessments to assess the water's appropriateness for a certain purpose. The total suspended solids and turbidity, out of all of these variables, are the most crucial for determining the general quality of the water from the perspective of agricultural applications. TSS measurements have a variety of applications, such as observing erosive processes in a landscape or irrigation systems. On the other hand, it is challenging to quickly monitor the TSS content in the water and to address urgent problems. Turbidity may be measured swiftly with the help of a turbidity meter. Given the correlation between turbidity and TSS, one may estimate the water's TSS using the turbidity value. Turbidity is affected by various types of soil solids that are present in the soil. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between TSS and turbidity, based on this develop regression models, compare the performance of the regression models for vertisols that was segregated into sand, silt, clay, mixed soil and natural soil solids. The data on TSS and turbidity were preprepared for 5 different soil fractions in the laborartary conditions through the sedimentation process. Using the known methods, TSS through the gravimetric method and turbidity through the turbidity meter at different concentration levels from 1 to 1500 mg/L, it is the possible minimum to maximum turbidity values for agricultural applications. These values were used to develop the linear regression model for the study. The results showed a strong positive relationship between turbidity and the TSS for all types of soil fractions. The correlation coefficient was found to be over 0.9 for these soils, which have demonstrated a high correlation. While monitoring, sand-sized percentage of soil fractions were immediately dropped below the turbidity-meter-monitored zone, which had an impact on the TSS value. However, it was discovered that the percentage of sand in black cotton soil were quite low; therefore, the established relationship can be helpful for TSS assessment. It is concluded that the generated models presented with good adjustments can be able to be used for predicting the concentration of TSS as a function of turbidity.

Keywords: TSS; Turbidity; Water Quality; Black Cotton Soils; Vertisol


  1. Lipps William C., et al. “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”. American Public Health Association 24 (2023).
  2. Bhargava DS." Turbidity predictions from suspension's concentrations and characteristics”. (1995).
  3. Bridgeman J., et al. “Practical and Theoretical Analysis of Relationships between Particle Count Data and Turbidity”. Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology 5 (2002): 263-271.
  4. Gao Peng, et al. “Estimating Suspended Sediment Concentration Using Turbidity in an Irrigation-Dominated Southeastern California Watershed”. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering2 (2008): 250-259.
  5. Gartner Jeffrey W., et al. “Laboratory and Field Evaluations of the LISST-100 Instrument for Suspended Particle Size Determinations”. Marine Geology1-4 (2001): 199-219.
  6. Gippel Christopher J. "The use of turbidimeters in suspended sediment research”. Hydrobiologia176 (1989): 465-480.
  7. Hart HM. “Effect of Land Use on Total Suspended Solids and Turbidity in the Little River Watershed” (2006).
  8. He Weipeng and Jun Nan. “Study on the Impact of Particle Size Distribution on Turbidity in Water”. Desalination and Water Treatment1-3 (2012): 26-34.
  9. Holliday CP., et al. “Establishing the Relationship between Turbidity and Total Suspended Sediment Concentration”. (2003).
  10. Khan MMA., et al. “Estimating Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids to Measure Sediment Load in Kelantan River”. Advances in Environmental Biology (2013): 4895-4901.
  11. Kleizen HH., et al. “Particle Concentration, Size and Turbidity”. Filtration and Separation9 (1995): 897-901.
  12. Lenzi Mario A and Lorenzo Marchi. “Suspended Sediment Load during Floods in a Small Stream of the Dolomites (Northeastern Italy)”. Catena4 (2000): 267-282.
  13. Minella Jean PG., et al. “Estimating Suspended Sediment Concentrations from Turbidity Measurements and the Calibration Problem”. Hydrological Processes12 (2008): 1819-1830.
  14. Musnad M., et al. “The Relationship between Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids in the Blue Nile River at Khartoum”. Water Science and Engineering | Journal 8 (2015): 41-50.
  15. Nasrabadi T., et al. “Using Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Turbidity as Proxies for Evaluation of Metal Transport in River Water”. Applied Geochemistry: Journal of the International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry 68 (2016): 1-9.
  16. Packman J., et al. “Using Turbidity to Determine Total Suspended Solids in Urbanizing Streams in the Puget Lowlands” (1999).
  17. Park Edward and Edgardo M Latrubesse. “Modeling Suspended Sediment Distribution Patterns of the Amazon River Using MODIS Data”. Remote Sensing of Environment 147 (2014): 232-242.
  18. Rahman Mohammad Nurur., et al. “Effect of Particle Concentration and Turbidity on Particle Characterization Using Digital Holography”. Chemical Engineering Research and Design: Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers2 (2014): 249-255.
  19. Shmeis RMA. “Water Chemistry and Microbiology”. Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry 81 (2018): 1-56.
  20. Teixeira EC and PC Caliari. “Estimation of the Concentration of Suspended Solids in Rivers from Turbidity Measurement: Error Assessment”. Sediment Budgets 1 (2005): 151-160.
  21. “Guidelines for Drniking Water Quality”. 4 (2017).
  22. Yao Meng Jun Nan and Ting Chen. "Effect of particle size distribution on turbidity under various water quality levels during flocculation processes”. Desalination354 (2014): 116-124.


Citation: Blessy VA., et al. “Predicting Total Suspended Solids from Turbidity for different types of Soil Particles". Acta Scientific Agriculture 7.12 (2023): 30-39.


Copyright: © 2023 Blessy VA., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.014

Indexed In

News and Events

Contact US