Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Review Article Volume 7 Issue 12

Feeding Management of Dairy Animals During Lean Season and Natural Calamities

Jakir Hussain1*, Jitendra Saharia2, Papori Taludar3 and Ashim Kumar Saikia4

Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary College, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, India

*Corresponding Author: Jakir Hussain, Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary College, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, India.

Received: October 03, 2023; Published: November 04, 2023


Feeding is the most expensive aspect of rearing dairy cattle. The dairy farmers face very critical situation during the natural calamities and lean season to feed their livestock. Feeding management of appropriate technique plays a great role in such a grim situation. Out various feeds, the straw is a very easy source of dry fodder for livestock round the year and can be preserved for long period. But, nutritional value of straw is very meager. Therefore, it is necessary to make straw a palatable, digestible and nutritionally qualified feed by several techniques like chopping or soaking in water, treating with urea-molasses, lime, NH4, NaOH or biological enzymes. The preservation of surplus fodder as hay and silage are better techniques for feeding large ruminants during the lean season. The total mixed ration (TMR) and complete feed block (CFB) are very some other means for complete balance feeding of dairy animals. In emergency urea molasses liquid diet (UMLD) and urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) are quite helpful. Tree leaves, vegetable leaves, sugarcane tops and bagasse are also very good supportive feeds for cattle and buffaloes during lean seasons, flood and other natural calamities. Establishment of fodder banks can provide high-quality feed during the lean season. Fodder production without soil by hydroponic method is the most advance technology for feeding dairy bovines to fulfill their required nutritional demand.

Keywords: Dairy Animals; Straw; Silage; Molasses and Lime; Fodder Bank and Hydroponic


  1. Singh A. “Livestock Production Statistics of India” (2022).
  2. Economic Survey, 2021-22, Government of India (2022).
  3. Aquino D., et al. “Rice Straw-Based Fodder for Ruminants. In Sustainable Rice Straw Management. by Gummert, M., Hung, N., Chivenge, P., Douthwaite, B. (eds), Springer, Cham (2020).
  4. Devendra C and Thomas D. “Crop-animal interactions in mixed farming systems in Asia”. Agricultural Systems 71 (2002): 27-40.
  5. Shen HS., et al. “Studies on untreated and urea-treated rice straw from three cultivation seasons: 1. Physical and chemical measurements in straw and straw fractions”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 3-4 (1998): 243-261.
  6. Walker HA. “Physical treatment. In straw and other fibrous byproducts as feed”. Developments in Animal Veterinary Sciences 14 (1984): 79.
  7. Milstein O., et al. “Solar pasteurization of straw for nutritional upgrading and as substrate for ligninolytic organisms”. Biotechnology Letters 9 (1987): 269-274.
  8. Prasad CS., et al. “Bio-conversion of crop residues”. Annual Report, NDRI, Bangalore, India.
  9. Rangnekar DV., et al. “Effect of high pressure steam treatment on chemical composition and digestibility in vitro of roughages”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 7 (1982): 61-70.
  10. Liu JX., et al. “Optimization of steam treatment as a method for upgrading rice straw as feeds”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 3-4 (1999): 345-357.
  11. Mcanally RA. “Digestion of straw by the ruminant”. Biochemical Journal (1942): 392-399.
  12. Treating straw for animal feeding: the Beckmann method (2012).
  13. Jackson MG. “Review article: The alkali treatment of straw”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2 (1997): 105-130.
  14. Berger LL., et al. “Modification of forage quality after harvest. In: Fahey C (ed) Forage quality, evaluation, and utilisation. American Society of Agronomy, Inc, Madison (1994): 922-966.
  15. Arieli A. “Whole cottonseed in dairy cattle feeding: a review”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 1-2 (1997): 97-110.
  16. Wang Y., et al. “Effect of alkali pretreatment of wheat straw on the efficacy of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes”. Journal of Animal Science 82 (2004): 198-208.
  17. Sundstøl F and Coxworth EM. “Ammonia treatment”. In: Sundstøl F, Owen E (eds) straw and other fibrous byproducts as feed, Development in Animal Veterinary Sciences 14. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1984): 196-247.
  18. Walli TK., et al. “Urea treatment of straw” Handbook for Straw Feeding Systems Kiran Singh and J.B. Schiere (Eds.), ICAR, New Delhi, India (2019).
  19. Gunun P., et al. “Effects of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in Dairy Steers, Asian-Australas”. Journal of Animal Science 12 (2013): 1689-1697.
  20. Langar RN., et al. “Utilization of agricultural wastes”. Proc. Symposium, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (1985).
  21. Nguyen XT. “Treatment and supplenetation of rice straw for ruminant feeding in Vietnam”. Doctor Scientiarum Thesis 2000:26. Agricultural University of Norway (2000).
  22. Sirohi SK and Rai SN. “Associative effect of lime plus urea treatment of paddy straw on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility”. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 65 (1995): 134-135.
  23. Jalc D. “Straw Enrichment for Fodder Production by Fungi”. In: Kempken, F. (eds) Agricultural Applications. The Mycota. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2002).
  24. Beauchemin KA., et al. “A rationale for the development of feed enzyme products for ruminants”. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 84 (2004): 23-36.
  25. Yang WZ., et al. “A comparison of methods of adding fibrolytic enzymes to lactating cow diets”. Journal of Dairy Science 83 (2000): 2512-2520.
  26. Beauchemin KA., et al. “Fibrolytic enzymes increase fiber digestibility and growth rate of steers fed dry forages”. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75 (1995): 641-644.
  27. Jafari A., et al. “Effects of treated wheat straw with exogenous fibre-degrading enzymes on wool characteristics of ewe lambs”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 4 (2005): 321-326.
  28. Phipps RH., et al. “Complete diets for dairy cows: a comparison between complete diets and separate ingredients”. The Journal of Agricultural Science 103 (1984): 171.
  29. Reddy DN and Reddy MR. “The effect of feeding complete feeds on nutrient utilization and milk production on crossbred cows”. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 36 (1983): 421-423.
  30. Liu YF., et al. “Effects of three feeding systems on production performance, rumen fermentation and rumen digesta particle structure of beef cattle”. Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 29 (2015): 659-665.
  31. Sigh M., et al. “Complete feed block technology- A fruitful innovation” (2016).
  32. Hozhabri F and Singhal KK. “Physical parameters of complete feed blocks based on wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse”. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 23 (2006): 150-154.
  33. Animal Feed and Nutrition Technologies© ICAR-IVRI Izatnagar (2023).
  34. Mehra UR., et al. “Effect of restricted and ad libitum feeding of urea molasses liquid diet (UMLD) on the Performance of adult crossbred cattle”. AJAS1 (1998): 30-34.
  35. Singh PK and Chandramoni. “Feeding of farm animals during scarcity, SMVS’ Dairy” (2010).
  36. “Feed supplementation blocks-Urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks: simple and effective feed supplement for ruminant agriculture”. FAO Animal Production and health Paper 164 (2007): P248.
  37. Sheikh AA. “Urea Molasses Mineral Blocks as A Feed Supplement, Pashudhan Praharee (2011).
  38. Narain P. “Feed and Management in Arid region, short course on "Feeding of livestock during drought and scarcity" (November 1-10,2006), Sponsored by ICAR, Division of Animal Sciences and Forage Production, CAZRI, Jodhpur-342003 (2006).
  39. Mohan P and Ponnusamy D. “Addressing the challenges of sugarcane trash decomposition through effective microbes. International Conference on Food Engineering and Biotechnology, IPCBEE, Singapore: IACSIT Press 9 (2011): 229-233.
  40. Rathod PK., et al. “Utilization of sugarcane trash for livestock feeding: An alternative to farm burning, Agricultural Extension in South Asia (2018).
  41. Singh RK. “Potential roles of tree leaves in ruminant nutrition, Pashudhan Praharee (2019).
  42. Kumar K and Paswan VK. “Feeding strategy for livestock during natural disaster - a Review”. Livestockline 5 (2012): 14-18.
  43. Rayburn ED and Shaffer K. “Forage and livestock management after a flood, Division of Animal and Nutritional Science, West Varginia University (WVU).
  44. “Fodder Banks to provide quality feed to Secure Livestock Resources in Ethiopia (2016). Benison Media, SCO-17, IInd Floor, Mugal Canal, Karnal-132001 (Haryana) India.
  45. Suman M., et al. “Impacts of natural calamities on livestock sector and their mitigation strategies”. Vet Helpline India (P) Ltd (2012).
  46. Sahoo A. “Silage for Climate Resilient Small Ruminant Production” (2017).
  47. Pandey S. “Fodder shortage in India major reason behind rise in milk costs, says govt institute” (2020).


Citation: Jakir Hussain., et al. “Feeding Management of Dairy Animals During Lean Season and Natural Calamities)". Acta Scientific Agriculture 7.12 (2023): 03-08.


Copyright: © 2023 Jakir Hussain., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.014

Indexed In

News and Events

Contact US