Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Review Article Volume 7 Issue 2

A Review of Studies on Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) in Turkey

Sevil Sağlam Yilmaz

Department of Plant Biotechnology, Kirsehir Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir, Turkey

*Corresponding Author: Sevil SAĞLAM YILMAZ, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Kirsehir Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir, Turkey

Received: Novemder 11, 2022; Published: January 06, 2023


Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a vegetable and also an important medicinal plant with economic importance. There is a rapidly increasing demand for this plant in Turkey and its cultivation has started. However, no production status has entered the statistics yet. At the same time, this plant is not known enough in Turkey. There is a need for more scientific studies that reveal the importance of this plant for the production of bitter melon in Turkey. In Turkey, theses, research articles, review articles, and book chapters have been written, and congress presentations and projects have been made so far. A total of 50 studies on the subject have been reached. Studies on bitter gourd began in 1993 and have continued to increase until today. These studies were mostly focused on antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The most recent studies have been studies on industrial use and Covid19 treatment. Biotechnological and nanotechnological studies on bitter gourd are not yet sufficient and no studies on gene transformation have been found. This review aims to bring together all the studies on the potency of bitter gourd in Turkey and to reveal a future perspective. As a result, it was concluded that more scientific studies should be done in Turkey.

Keywords: Bitter Gourd; Momordica Charantia L; Turkey; Research; Medicinal Plant


  1. Chaturvedi P. “Antidiabetic potentials of Momordica charantia: Multiple mechanisms behind the effects”. Journal of Medicinal Food 2 (2012): 101-107.
  2. Yavuzer MN. “Investigation of antimicrobial activity of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extracts against fish spoilage and food-borne pathogens”. MSc Thesis Çukurova University (2016).
  3. Baldemir A., et al. "Evaluation of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) fruits". Derim 35.1 (2018): 45-50.
  4. Türkoğlu S. “Comparison of antioxidant and antidiabetic components of commercial bitter melon products”. MSc Thesis İstanbul University (2018).
  5. Top R., et al. "Bazı önemli tıbbi bitkilerin antioksidan ve antikanser etkilerinin araştırılması". Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi2 (2019): 435-442.
  6. Kanpalta et al. "Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit extract ameliorate methotrexate‐induced reproductive toxicity in male rats". Marmara Medical Journal3 (2021): 222-228.
  7. Demirci BC., et al. “Investigation of antioxidant activity in potency pomegranate (Momordica charantia)”. Cukurova Medical Journal 47:1 (2022): 9-10.
  8. Alper M., et al. “Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Composition of Ethanol Extracts of Momordica charantia and Datura stramonium”. KSU Journal of Agriculture and Nature 1 (2022): 1-9.
  9. Deniz ÖG., et al. "The effects of different herbals on the rat hippocampus exposed to the electromagnetic field for one hour during the prenatal period". Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 119 (2022): 102043.
  10. Hurmoğlu C. “Investigation of the hypoglycemic effect of (bitter melon) in hyperglycemic or normoglycemic mice”. MS Thesis Gazi University (1993).
  11. Altinterim B. "Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and the effects of diabetes disease". Uludağ Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi2 (2012): 65-70.
  12. Kahraman T. "Relation of Momordica charantia (Bitter melon) and TYPE 2 diabetes mellitus" Ms Thesis Ege University (2018).
  13. Koyu EB. "Diyabette Kullanılan Bitkisel Desteklerin Etkinliği ve Güvenilirliği". Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi 47 (2019): 110-117.
  14. Pişkin A., et al. "The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin". Journal of Dermatological Treatment4 (2014): 350-357.
  15. İlhan M., et al. "Topical application of olive oil macerate of Momordica charantia promotes healing of excisional and incisional wounds in rat buccal mucosa". Archives of Oral Biology60.12 (2015): 1708-1713.
  16. Gürlek Ö. "Investigation of activity dressing made with bitter melon extract by dressings made by using pure olive oil, nitrofurazone and normal saline in ischemic wound healing". Ph.D. Thesis Ege University (2015).
  17. Çoban ZD., et al. “Effect of Momordica charantia Extract on Gene Expression in Wound Healing”. Official Journal of Koru Hospitals1 (2016).
  18. Kısacık ÖG., et al. “The effect of Momordica on wound healing”. Spatula DD 7.2 (2017).
  19. İnce İ., et al. "Momordica charantia Meyveleri Kullanılarak Krem Hazırlanması, Kalite Kontrolü ve In Vitro Yara İyi Edici Etkisinin Araştırılması". Erzincan University Journal of Science and Technology 12.1 (2019): 38-48.
  20. Bedir AG., et al. "Veteriner Fitoterapide Yara Bakımında Yaygın Olarak Kullanılan Bitkiler”. Bozok Veterinary Sciences2 (2021): 73-79.
  21. Ekizce E., "Effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) oil on wound healing in an experimental type II diabetic wound model". Msc Thesis Kırıkkale University (2019).
  22. Temizer NH. “Investigation of the effect of zinc oxide and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) combination on diabetic wound”. Msc Thesis Mehmet Aktif Ersoy University (2020).
  23. Meral HM., "Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter gourd) extract on burns and resuscitation of stasis zone on diabetic rats". Ph.D. Thesis Karadeniz Technical University (2021).
  24. Süzen HF., "Production and optimization of structured lipid with acidolysis of a mixture of corn oil and bitter melon fatty acids". MS Thesis Karadeniz Technical University (2009).
  25. Elibal, B. “Production of structured lipids with canola oil and bitter gourd fatty acids (CLNA) and optimization of reaction conditions” MS Thesis Karadeniz Technical University (2009).
  26. Vural B. “Studies on bitter melon (Momordica charantia) oil standardization”. MS Thesis Yeditepe University (2019).
  27. Yılmaz H. “Effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit on some physical and chemical properties of extra virgin olive oil”. MS Thesis Harran University (2022).
  28. Akay A., et al. "The Effect of Different Doses Phosphorus and Iron Fertilizer Application on Leaf Chlorophyll Content in Mycorrhiza Inoculated Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Plant". Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology3 (2012): 103-108.
  29. Şavşatli Y., et al. "Effects of Different Planting Frequency to Some Agricultural Traits of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Grown in Rize Ecological Conditions". Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi Special 1(2014): 659-662.
  30. Civelek C., et al. "The Performances of Some Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Genotypes in Open Field and Protected Cultivation at Bafra Condition" (2015): 45.
  31. Dokap, “Medical and Aromatic Plants of the Eastern Black Sea Region Inventory, Commercial Use Research and Manufacturers Education Project Education Book” (2017).
  32. Şavşatlı Y., et al. "The Effects of Growing Technique and Harvest Period on Some Traits of Fruits and Seeds of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)" . Tarım Bilimleri Araştırma Dergisi 11 (2018 ): 1-6.
  33. Şavşatli Y., et al. “Effects of Pruning and Topping on Yield and Fruit Characteristics of Fruit Setting on Stem in Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)”. Alatarım 17.1 (2018): 1-8.
  34. Ersöz, Ç. “Effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) against cisplatin and valproic acid induced genotoxicity in drosophila melanogaster”. MS thesis. Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University (2019).
  35. Erdogan, K., et al. "Investigation of the Effects of Momordica charantia Extract on Cell Survival and Migration in U87G Glioblastoma Cell Line”. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Proceedings 1 (2019): 18.
  36. Erdoğan K. “Investigation of the effect of Momordica charantia extract on Sparc and Src-1 protein expression in U87G cancer cell”. Ms Thesis Bilecik Şey Edebali University (2020).
  37. Erdogan K., et al. "The Extract of Momordica charantia Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Migration in U87G Cells". Biology Bulletin (2022): 1-8.
  38. Yıldırım ÖF. “Investigation of the effect of various extracts of Momordica charantia (Pomegranate) plant in experimentally induced Peptic Ulcer in rats”. Ms Thesis Gazi University (1994).
  39. Semiz A. “Investigation the Comprehensive Identification of the Molecular Mechanisms of the Healing Effects of Momordica charantia in Ulcerative Colitis Model”. The Scientific And Technological Research Council Of Türkiye (2018).
  40. Yılmaz Ş. “Process development for the extraction of bioactive compounds of bitter melon”. MS Thesis Ondokuz Mayıs University (2015).
  41. Savsatli Y., et al. "Determination of suitable solvents for extraction of different fruit parts of bitter melon (Momordica charantia)". Tarım Bilimleri Araştırma Dergisi9.1 (2016): 18-22.
  42. Altinkayna C., et al. "Synthesis of Hybrid Nanoflowers Using The Purified Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia) Peroxidase and its Usability Of Direct Blue 1 Decolorization” . Journal of Bitlis Eren University 9.2 (2020): 573-583.
  43. Aydos M. “Usage possibilities of the fruits of medlar (Mespilus germanica) and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) in functional biscuit production”. MS Thesis. Necmettin Erbakan University (2022).
  44. Tepe F. "Comparison of the topical Momordica charantia (bitter melon) treatment and the effects of emergency treatment methods on the wound healing in experimental contact burns". Ph.D. Thesis Ege University (2016).
  45. Akpınar H. “The effect of Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) on the gene levels of estrogene receptors ESR1 and ESR2 with on oxidative DNA damage”. Ms Thesis Marmara University (2013).
  46. Beşir A. “Formation of polymeric micro/nano particles and fibers including bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract by electrospinning method”. Ms Thesis Yıldız Teknik University (2015).
  47. Yilmaz SS., et al. "Tissue culture, genetic engineering, and nanotechnology in bitter gourd”. The Bitter Gourd Genome (2020): 83-89.
  48. Saglam S. “In Vitro Propagation of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia)”. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies 19 (2017).
  49. Öztürk B. “Effects of Momordica charantia on fracture healing in rats”. Kütahya Sağlık Bilimleri University (2019).
  50. Aydin G., et al. "A Review: Momordica charantia's Biological Active Components and Its Potential Use in Traditional Therapies”. International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research1.2 (2020): 79-95.
  51. Karataş, A., et al. "Characterization of volatile compounds nongrafted and pumpkin-grafted bitter gourd (Momordica charantia)". Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry46.3 (2022): 327-339.
  52. Otlu Ö., et al. “Medicinal Plants for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease”. Intelligent Systems with Applications1 (2021): 74-85.
  53. Tüzün B., et al. "Could Momordica charantia Be Effective In The Treatment of COVID19?" Cumhuriyet Science Journal2 (2022): 211-220.


Citation: Sevil Sağlam Yilmaz. “A Review of Studies on Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) in Turkey". Acta Scientific Agriculture 7.2 (2023): 03-12.


Copyright: © 2023 Sevil Sağlam Yilmaz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.014

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US