Ecological Impacts of Heavy Metals on Aquatic Organisms and Human Health
Khushbu*, Rachna Gulati, Sushma, Amit Kour, Deepak Verma and
Pankaj Sharma Poonam Devi
Department of Zoology and Aquaculture, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana
Agriculture University, Hisar Haryana, India
*Corresponding Author: Khushbu, Department of Zoology and Aquaculture, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar Haryana, India.
August 01, 2022; Published: November 08, 2022
Heavy metals have high density that is harmful even in low quantity. These metals enter aquatic habitats through a variety of sources, home effluents, including industrial waste, atmospheric sources, and other metal-based businesses, as well as e-waste. Heavy metal pollution is responsible for the degeneration of aquatic species, creating physical abnormalities in creatures and contaminating the aquatic environment. These poisonous heavy metals cause a variety of fish ailments like decrease hatching rate, teratogenesis and bioaccumulation in the tissues etc. The contamination of heavy metals into aquatic bodies and aquatic ecosystems has a significant influence on the food chain. Because fish are consumed by people, it has an indirect impact on them. These heavy metals also have a higher impact on the environment because they remain for longer periods and have bio-accumulative capabilities, leading water health to deteriorate. This study offers insight into the disruption of fish physiology by heavy metals and aims to increase sensitivity to the prevention and management of aquatic environmental pollution, particularly heavy metal contamination.
Keywords: Heavy Metal; Bio-Accumulative; Aquatic Environmental Pollution; Fish Physiology
- Barjhoux I., et al. “Effects of copper and cadmium spiked-sediments on embryonic development of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 79 (2012): 272-282.
- Benaduce APS., et al. “Toxicity of cadmium for silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Heptapteridae) embryos and larvae at different alkalinities”. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology2 (2008): 274-282.
- Calta M. “Effects of aqueous cadmium on embryos and larvae of mirror carp”. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences9 (2001).
- Cao L., et al. “Cadmium toxicity to embryonic-larval development and survival in red sea bream Pagrus major”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety7 (2009): 1966-1974.
- Celino FT., et al. “Arsenic inhibits in vitro spermatogenesis and induces germ cell apoptosis in Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica)”. Reproduction2 (2009): 279-287.
- Chen A., et al. “Developmental neurotoxicants in e-waste: an emerging health concern”. Environmental Health Perspectives4 (2011): 431-438.
- Ediagbonya TF., et al. “Bioaccumulation of Elemental Concentrations in Sediment and Frog (Pyxicephalus edulis) in Igbeebo River, Ondo State, Nigeria”. Chemistry Africa (2022): 1-13.
- El-Greisy ZA and El-Gamal AHA. “Experimental studies on the effect of cadmium chloride, zinc acetate, their mixture and the mitigation with vitamin C supplementation on hatchability, size and quality of newly hatched larvae of common carp, Cyprinus carpio”. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research2 (2015): 219-226.
- Erickson RJ., et al. “Effects of copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic in a live diet on juvenile fish growth”. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences11 (2010): 1816-1826.
- Fraysse B., et al. “Development of a zebrafish 4-day embryo-larval bioassay to assess toxicity of chemicals”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety2 (2006): 253-267.
- Gárriz Á and Miranda LA. “Effects of metals on sperm quality, fertilization and hatching rates, and embryo and larval survival of pejerrey fish (Odontesthes bonariensis)”. Ecotoxicology 7 (2020): 1072-1082.
- Green AJ., et al. “Cadmium Disrupts Vestibular Function by Interfering with Otolith Formation”. BioRxiv (2017): 162347.
- Guffanti M and Tupper A. “Volcanic ash hazards and aviation risk”. In Volcanic hazards, risks and disasters (2015): 87-108.
- Haddad L., et al. “A systematic review of effects of waterpipe smoking on cardiovascular and respiratory health outcomes”. Tobacco Use Insights 9 (2016): TUI-S39873.
- He S., et al. “Current State‐of‐the‐Art in the Interface/Surface Modification of Thermoelectric Materials”. Advanced Energy Materials37 (2021): 2101877.
- Huang W., et al. “Toxic effects of zinc on the development, growth, and survival of red sea bream Pagrus major embryos and larvae”. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology1 (2010): 140-150.
- Ilyas M., et al. “Environmental and health impacts of industrial wastewater effluents in Pakistan: a review”. Reviews on Environmental Health2 (2019): 171-186.
- Javed M. "Effects of zinc and lead toxicity on the growth and their bioaccumulation in fish”. Pakistan Veterinary Journal3 (2012): 357-362.
- Javed M. “Chronic effects of nickel and cobalt on fish growth”. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology3 (2013).
- Johnson A., et al. “The effects of copper on the morphological and functional development of zebrafish embryos”. Aquatic Toxicology4 (2007): 431-438.
- Jurgelėnė Ž., et al. “Toxicological potential of cadmium impact on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in early development”. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology4 (2019): 544-550.
- Kong X., et al. “Effects of copper exposure on the hatching status and antioxidant defense at different developmental stages of embryos and larvae of goldfish Carassius auratus”. Chemosphere 11 (2013): 1458-1464.
- Ługowska K. “The effect of cadmium and cadmium/copper mixture during the embryonic development on deformation of common carp larvae”. Electron J Ichthyol 2 (2007): 46-60.
- Mishenin Y., et al. “Ecologically harmonized agricultural management for global food security. “In Ecological Intensification of Natural Resources for Sustainable Agriculture” Springer, Singapore (2021): 29-76.
- Mishra S., et al. “Heavy metal contamination: an alarming threat to environment and human health”. In Environmental biotechnology: For sustainable future, Springer, Singapore (2019): 103-125.
- Mochida K., et al. “Early life‐stage toxicity test for copper pyrithione and induction of skeletal anomaly in a teleost, the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus)”. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: An International Journal2 (2008): 367-374.
- Mukherjee S. “Handbook on Present Environmental challenges: An overview (2022).
- Mushtaq N., et al. “Freshwater contamination: sources and hazards to aquatic biota”. In Fresh Water Pollution Dynamics and Remediation, Springer, Singapore (2020): 27-50.
- Nail AN., et al. “Circulating miRNAs as Biomarkers of Toxic Heavy Metal Exposure”. Genomic and Epigenomic Biomarkers of Toxicology and Disease: Clinical and Therapeutic Actions (2022): 63-87.
- Nguyen LT and Janssen CR. “Embryo-larval toxicity tests with the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): comparative sensitivity of endpoints”. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology2 (2002): 256-262.
- Ouabo RE., et al. “Ecological risk and human health implications of heavy metals contamination of surface soil in e-waste recycling sites in Douala, Cameroun”. Journal of Health and Pollution21 (2019).
- Poonkothai MVBS and Vijayavathi BS. “Nickel as an essential element and a toxicant”. International Journal of Environmental Sciences4 (2012): 285-288.
- Purves D. “Trace-element Contamination of the Environment”. Elsevier (2012).
- Samson JC and Shenker J. “The teratogenic effects of methylmercury on early development of the zebrafish, Danio rerio”. Aquatic Toxicology2-3 (2000): 343-354.
- Sarnowski P. “The effect of metals on yolk sac resorption and growth of starved and fed common carp [Cyprinus carpio] larvae”. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Piscaria 2.1 (2003).
- Sassi A., et al. “Influence of high temperature on cadmium-induced skeletal deformities in juvenile mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)”. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry3 (2010): 403-409.
- Sharma RK and Agrawal M. “Biological effects of heavy metals: an overview”. Journal of environmental Biology2 (2005): 301-313.
- Sierka CE. “Industrial zinc plating processes”. Indiana University of Pennsylvania (2015).
- Singh A., et al. “Integrated approaches to mitigate threats from emerging potentially toxic elements: A way forward for sustainable environmental management”. Environmental Research 209 (2022): 112844.
- Sonone SS., et al. “Water contamination by heavy metals and their toxic effect on aquaculture and human health through food Chain”. Letters in Applied NanoBioScience2 (2020): 2148-2166.
- Upadhyay R. “Heavy Metals in our Ecosystem. In “Heavy Metals in Plants Physiological to Molecular Approach”. CRC Press (2022): 1-15.
- Wang P., et al. “A review on completing arsenic biogeochemical cycle: microbial volatilization of arsines in environment”. Journal of Environmental Sciences2 (2014): 371-381.
- Wang RF., et al. “Developmental toxicity of copper in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) embryos and larvae”. Chemosphere 247 (2020): 125923.
- Williams ND and Holdway DA. “The effects of pulse‐exposed cadmium and zinc on embryo hatchability, larval development, and survival of Australian crimson spotted rainbow fish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)”. Environmental Toxicology 3 (2000): 165-173.
- Witeska M and Lugowska K. “The effect of copper exposure during embryonic development on deformations of newly hatched common carp larvae, and further consequences”. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities. Series Fisheries07 (2004).
- Witeska M., et al. “The effects of cadmium and copper on embryonic and larval development of ide Leuciscus idus L”. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 1 (2014): 151-163.
- Zhang H., et al. “The toxicity of cadmium (Cd2+) towards embryos and pro-larva of soldatov's catfish (Silurus soldatovi)”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 80 (2012): 258-265.
- Zulfahmi I., et al. “Development, growth and reproduction of fish-a review”. Toxicology Reports.