Biorational Approach: An Alternative Approach to Control the Wilt Diseases of Crops
MSc, Student, Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India
*Corresponding Author: Ritwik Sahoo, MSc, Student, Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India.
June 17, 2022; Published: August 30, 2022
Wilt diseases are one of the most severe diseases which vigorously cause losses in various crops like-tomato, brinjal etc. Wilt disease is caused by fungi, bacteria and virus also and can be induced by nematode also. Therefore, wilt disease is a major problem in all over the world. The severity of fusarium wilt in brinjal is 10%-90% [27,36] and for bacterial wilt fruit yield is reduced by 20%-30%  in brinjal Although chemicals are broadly used to control these wilt diseases, but because of growing concerns about health and environmental safety, the use of toxic, carcinogenic, and/or environmentally damaging chemicals are being discouraged. These chemicals leave toxic residues in consumable agricultural commodities. The survey of monitoring of farm-gate samples in different parts of the country recorded pesticide residues above Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) [19,23]. So, novel strategies including biorational approaches against these wilt diseases are needed for their sustainable management. Antagonistic microorganisms, such as fungi and probiotic bacteria from diverse taxonomic genera were found to suppress wilt diseases both in vitro and in vivo. Various classes of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, phenolics, and terpenoids of plant and microbial origin and various plant origin substances significantly inhibit the causal organisms and are also effective in managing the wilt diseases. Besides these organic amendments are also helpful to control these wilt diseases as they are commonly soil borne in nature. Common mode of action of biocontrol agents include-induced resistance, mycoparasitism, antibiosis, antibiotic production, induced systemic resistance and competition. Mechanism of organic amendments include-modification of physico- chemical environment of soil in host favour, pathogen eradication by direct antagonism and decomposition products and microbial metabolites effects. Mode of action of botanicals include-reaction with various enzymes and complex materials in cell wall or membrane. There is proof of control of bacterial wilt by Pseudomonas sp.  as well green manure derived from medicinal plant  and Cinnamon oil . Therefore, these biorational approaches will become very helpful if we use them more commercially than chemicals, this review updates our knowledge in this perspective.
Keywords: Wilt; Biorational; Induced Resistance; Mycoparasitism; Antibiosis; Induced Systemic Resistance
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