Standardized Methods were Established to Measure Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in the Various Land-Use System of Planting Legumes Under Field Conditions Calculations of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Accumulation When One Land-Use Type is Converted to Another Crop Rotation
Makkies David Lengwati*
Department of Agriculture, Rural Development, Land Administration and Environmental Affairs (DARDLEA), South Africa
*Corresponding Author: Makkies David Lengwati, Department of Agriculture, Rural Development, Land Administration and Environmental Affairs (DARDLEA), South Africa.
September 29, 2020; Published: August 02, 2021
Nitrogen fixation potential and residual effects of selected grain legumes in a South African soil with the back-up of nitrogen economy of pulse crop production in the Nelspruit/Mbombela Lowveld area was studied.
Rhizobium - legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate and using kraal manure as a fertilizer in growing vegetables in the home garden were also observations for nitrogen supply to plant growth. Measuring plant-associated nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems has a potential precision of the δ15N natural abundance method in field estimates of nitrogen fixation by crop and pasture legumes in South Africa thus provided influence of mycorrhizal associations on foliar δ15N values of legume and non-legume shrubs and trees in the fynbos of South Africa, Western Cape province with implications for estimating N2 fixation using the 15N natural abundance method.
A cropping system assessment framework - evaluating effects of introducing legumes into crop rotations with N2 - fixation in field settings: estimations based on natural 15N abundance was categorized as priority. Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environments and the effect of temperature on nodulation and nitrogen fixation by five grain legumes were tested under field conditions without Rhizobium strains applied.
Variation in N2 fixation and N contribution by five grain legumes varieties grown in the same agro - ecologies, measured using 15N natural abundance results were obtainable. This study based it’s importance on African legumes a vital but under - utilized resources.
Those Grain legumes increases soil - N fertility in cereal systems through nitrate sparing and N2 fixation in contrast to inorganic fertilizer application. Atmospheric nitrogen is a reliable standard for natural 15N abundance measurements. Methodologies for estimating nitrogen transfer between legumes and companion species in agro - ecosystems was a review of 15N - enriched techniques which was put into practice.
Keywords: Fertilizer; N2; δ15N
- Climate change working group final report, Phase II; International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF). Carbon sequestration and trace gas emissions in slash-and-burn and alternative land uses in the humid tropics; Nairobi, Kenya (2000).
- Davidson E A., et al. “Nitrous oxide emission controls and inorganic nitrogen dynamics in fertilized tropical agricultural soils”. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60 (1996): 1145-1152.
- Erickson H E and M Keller. “Tropical land-use change and soil emissions of nitrogen oxides”. Soil Use and Management 13 (1997): 278-287.
- Nyemba RC and Dakora F D. “Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environments”. Food Security in Nutrients-Stressed Environments: Exploiting Plants’ Genetic Capabilities, Springer (2005): 201-213.
- Belane A K and F D Dakora. “Photosynthesis, symbiotic N and C accumulation in leaves of 30 nodulated cowpea genotypes grown in the field at Wa in the Guinea savannah of Ghana”. Field Crops Research3 (2011): 279-287.
- Unkovich M. “Nitrogen fixation in Australian dairy systems: review and prospect”. Crop and Pasture Science 63 (2012): 787-804.
- Shearer G and D H Kohl. “N2-fixation in field settings: estimations based on natural 15N abundance”. Functional Plant Biology6 (1986): 699-756.
- Mariotti A. “Atmospheric nitrogen is a reliable standard for natural 15N abundance measurements” (1983).
- Nagur T., et al. Management procedures for pearl millet improvement. ICRISAT, Skill Development Series (1992).
- Herridge D. “Chickpea increases soil-N fertility in cereal systems through nitrate sparing and N2 fixation”. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27 (1995): 5454-5551.
- Spriggs A C., et al. “Influence of mycorrhizal associations on foliar δ15N values of legume and non-legume shrubs and trees in the fynbos of South Africa: implications for estimating N2 fixation using the 15N natural abundance method”. Plant and Soil2 (2003): 495-502.
- Mokobane K F. “Evaluation of symbiotic N nutrition, C accumulation, P uptake and grain yield of fifteen mung bean genotypes planted at two sites in South Africa”. M. Tech Thesis, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (2013).
- Beck A., et al. “A new methodology and procedure for fsr/e programmes with maize and cowpeas in mpumalanga, South Africa in 1994-95”.
- Cheming’wa GN. “Nitrogen fixation potential and residual effects of selected grain legumes in a Kenyan soil”. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research2 (2006): 14-20.
- Chalk PM. “Methodologies for estimating nitrogen transfer between legumes and companion species in agro-ecosystems: a review of 15N-enriched techniques”. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 73 (2014): 10-21.
- Fuller D Q and E L Harvey. “The archaeobotany of Indian pulses: identification, processing and evidence for cultivation”. Environmental Archaeology2 (2006): 219-246.
- Heuze V., et al. Mung bean (Vigna radiate)., Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO (2015).
- Hoorman J., et al. “Sustainable crop rotations with cover crops”. Ohio State University, Extension, Fact Sheet Agriculture and Natural Resources, SAG-9-09. (2009).
- Hungria M and MA Vargas. “Environmental factors affecting N2 fixation in grain legumes in the tropics, with an emphasis on Brazil”. Field Crops Research 65 (2000): 151-164.
- Kay D E. Food legumes. Crop and product digest, No.3. Tropical Products Institute, London (UK): (1979): 17-25.
- Mathews C. Minor edible legumes in Mpumalanga, South Africa., Proceedings of first International edible legume conference in conjunction with the fourth world cowpea congress, University of Pretoria., Pretoria, Published in IELC website (2005).
- Meulenberg, F P., et al. “African legumes a vital but under-utilized resources”. Journal of Experimental Botany5 (2009): 1257-1265.
- Mokgehle S N., et al. “Variation in N2 fixation and N contribution by 25 groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties grown in different agro-ecologies, measured using 15N natural abundance”. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 195 (2014): 161-172.
- Montanez A., et al. “The effect of temperature on nodulation and nitrogen fixation by five Brandyrhizobium japonicum strains”. Applied Soil and Ecology3 (1995): 165-174.
- Pearson K. “On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space”. Philosophical Magazine Sixth Series 2 (1901): 559-572.
- Ranjit Singh. India-the land and people., fruits., Second edition (Reprint) 1979 (Saka 1900).
- Reckling M. “A cropping system assessment framework-evaluating effects of introducing legumes into crop rotations”. European Journal of Agronomy 76 (2016): 186-197.
- Singh S K and Jakhar. “Study on Constraints and Adoption of Black Gram Production Technology by the Farners in Mirzapur District of Uttar Pradesh, India”. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 10 (2017): 174-178.
- van Averbeke W and S Yoganathan. Using Kraal Manure as a Fertiliser., National Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural and Rural Development Research Institute, Fort Hare (1997).
- Wester Robert E. Growing vegetables in the home garden. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 202. U.S. Department of Agriculture (1972).
- Zahran HH. “Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate”. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews4 (1999): 968-989.