Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 9

Phytoremediation Potential of Castor Bean (Ricinus Communis L.)

Violina Angelova1* and Mariana Perifanova Nemska2

1Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University-Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2University of Food Technologies-Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

*Corresponding Author: Violina Angelova, Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University-Plovdiv, Bulgaria .

Received: July 29, 2020; Published: August 28, 2020



The goal of this research was to investigate the potential use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) for the remediation of metal-polluted sites. This field study was performed in industrially polluted soils that contain high concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd situated at different distances (0.1, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution – KCM (Non-Ferrous Metal Works) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The amount of heavy metals in different part of castor oil plant (roots, stems, leaves, capsule, seeds) and oils was determined by ICP. The castor oil plant is tolerant to heavy metals. Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor values were greater than one, which suggests that heavy metals accumulate efficiently in the shoots. The presence of low levels of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as high levels of monounsaturated acids result in the production of a high quality biodiesel. The castor bean is a plant that can be used simultaneously for phytoextraction of heavy metals from soils and as biofuel. It can be grown on soils heavily contaminated with heavy metals, which are not suitable for the cultivation of food crops.

Keywords: Castor Oil Plant; Heavy Metals; Oil; Phytoremediation; Polluted Soils



  1. Chaney RL., et al. “Phytoremediation of soils metals”. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 8 (1997): 279-284. 
  2. Abioye OP., et al. “Bioremoval of Zinc in Polluted Soil using Acalypha inferno”. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 9.5 (2015): 249-255.
  3. Ciura J., et al. “The possibility of using crops as metal phytoremediants”. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 14 (2005): 17-20. 
  4. Lone MI., et al. “Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives”. Journal of Zhejiang University Science 9 (2008): 210-220.
  5. Kiran BR., et al. “Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) as a potential candidate for revegetating industrial waste contaminated sites in peri-urban Greater Hyderabad: remarks on seed oil”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24.24 (2017): 19955-19964.
  6. Fassler A., et al. “Phytomanagement of metal-contaminated agricultural land using sunflower, maize and tobacco”. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 87 (2010): 339-352.
  7. Angelova VR., et al. “Potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals”. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology 18.2 (2017): 468-478. 
  8. Prasad MNV and Freitas HMO. “Metal hyperaccumulation in plants e biodiversity prospecting for phytoremediation technology”. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 6 (2013): 284-321.
  9. Rajkumar M and Freitas SH. “Influence of metal resistant-plant growth promoting bacteria on the growth of Ricinus communis soil contaminated with heavy metals”. Chemosphere 71 (2008): 834-842.
  10. Huang H., et al. “The phytoremediation potential of bioenergy crop Ricinus communis for DDTs and cadmium co-contaminated soil”. Bioresearch Technology 102 (2011): 11034-11038.
  11. Olivares AR., et al. “Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production”. Journal of Environmental Management 114 (2013): 316-323.
  12. Boda RK., et al. “Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) as a potential candidate for revegetating industrial waste contaminated sites in peri-urban Greater Hyderabad: remarks on seed oil”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24.24 (2017): 19955-19964. 
  13. Gonzalez-Chavez MCA., et al. “Crude oil and bioproducts of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) plants established naturally on metal mine tailings”. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 12 (2015): 2263.
  14. Kiran BR and Prasad MNV. “Ricinus communis L. (Castor bean), a potential multi-purpose environmental crop for improved and integrated phytoremediation”. The EuroBiotech Journal 1.2 (2017): 101-116.
  15. Kulkarni MG and Sawant SB. “Some physical properties of castor oil esters and hydrogenated castor oil esters”. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 105 (2017): 214-218.
  16. Bagali SS., et al. “Optimization and Characrerization of Castor Seed Oil”. Leonardo Journal of Sciences 17 (2010): 59-70.
  17. Wiley RG and Oeitmann TN. “Ricin and related plant toxins: Mechanisms of action And Neurobiological Applications”. Handbook of natural toxins 6 (1991): 346-348.
  18. Khan MJ., et al. “Evaluation of phytoremediation potential of castor cultivars for heavy metals from soil”. Planta Daninha 37 (2017): e019180998.
  19. Zhang H., et al. “Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of two castor cultivars in relation to antioxidant systems”. Journal of Environmental Sciences 26.10 (2014): 2048-2055.
  20. Costa ET de S., et al. “Assessing the Tolerance of Castor Bean to Cd and Pb for Phytoremediation Purposes”. Biological Trace Element Research 145 (2012): 93-100.
  21. ISO 11466. Soil quality - Extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia (1995).
  22. ISO 14780. Soil Quality- Extraction of Trace Elements by Buffered DTPA Solution (2001).
  23. ISO 5509. Animal and vegetable fat and oils - Preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids (2000).
  24. ISO 5508. Animal and vegetable fat and oils - Determination of methyl esters of fatty acids (Gas chromatographic method) (2000). 
  25. Romeiro S., et al. “Lead uptake and tolerance of Ricinus communis L”. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 18.4 (2006): 483-489. 
  26. Shi G and Cai Q. “Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in eight potential energy crops”. Biotechnology Advances 27 (2009): 555-561.
  27. Varun M., et al. “Metal contamination of soils and plants associated with the glass industry in North Central India: prospects of phytoremediation”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 19 (2012): 269-281. 
  28. Mani D and Kumar C. “Biotechnological advances in bioremediation of heavy metals contaminated ecosystems: an overview with special reference to phytoremediation”. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 11 (2013): 843-872.
  29. Clemens S., et al. “A long way ahead: understanding and engineering plant metal accumulation”. Trends in Plant Science 7 (2002): 309-315.
  30. Garbisu C and Alkorta I. “Phytoextraction: a cost effective plant-based technology for the removal of metals from the environment”. Bioresearch Technology 77 (2001): 229-236.
  31. Mazzani E and Rodriguez E. “Estudio de la variabilidad presente en germoplasma de tártago (Ricinus communis L.) en cuanto a racimos, frutos y semillas”. Revista Científica UDO Agrícola 9 (2009): 764-769.
  32. Manzano P., et al. “Comparación del porcentaje de aceite y del tamaño de seis ecotipos de semillas de higuerilla (Ricinus communis), de origen Sudamericano”. Revista tecnologia EPOLRTE 22 (2009): 15-20.
  33. Rios Gervasio FA., et al. “Method and phenological characterization of the stadiums and phases of the development of castor bean plants”. African Journal of Agricultural Research 11.44 (2016): 4488-4497.
  34. Knothe G. “Designer biodiesel: optimizing fatty ester composition to improve fuel properties”. Energy Fuel 22 (2008): 358-1364.
  35. Jumat S., et al. “Fatty Acid composition and Physicochemical Properties of Malaysian Castor Bean Ricinus communis L. Seed Oil”. Sains Malaysiana 39.5 (2010): 761-764. 
  36. Prasad MNV. “Metals in the environment: analysis by biodiversity”. New York, Marcel Dekker (2001).


Citation: Violina Angelova and Mariana Perifanova Nemska. “Phytoremediation Potential of Castor Bean (Ricinus Communis L.) ". Acta Scientific Agriculture 4.9 (2020): 63-72.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.869

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is October 20, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US