Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 3

Morphological Analysis of Drought Tolerance Traits in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)

Sani Sadiya*

Department of Biological Science, Kaduna State University, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Sani Sadiya, Department of Biological Science, Kaduna State University, Nigeria.

Received: January 24, 2020; Published: February 13, 2020



  Drought stress is the most important constraint to rice production in rainfed systems, affecting 10 million hectares of upland rice and over 13 million ha of rainfed lowland rice in Asia alone. Drought occurs throughout the length and breadth of Nigeria mostly severe in the Sudano-Sahalian states of Kebbi, Sokoto, Zamfara, Katsina, Kano, Jigawa, Yobe, Gombe and Borno. Chronic dry spells of relatively short duration can often result in substantial yield loss, especially if they occur around the flowering stage. In addition, drought risk reduces productivity even during favorable years in drought prone areas because farmers avoid investing in inputs when they fear crop loss. Identifying rice varieties and breeding lines with high levels of drought tolerance for use as donors in breeding and gene discovery is one of the main challenges for rice research. Water stress may occur at different growth stages and be of varying duration and intensities, thereby affecting growth and yield. Information on genetic variation, heritability and correlation among various characters will help breeders in deciding the most appropriate procedure for development of drought-tolerant cultivars. The objectives of these studies were to determine the effect of drought on growth and reproductive traits of rice under drought conditions. Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) germplasms were evaluated to study the effect of drought on growth and reproductive plant function using a split plot design during 2015/16. Rice germplasms showed appreciable variations in morphological traits (leaf rolling and leaf drying) under different water regimes. The cumulative effect of water stress on growth and reproductive traits resulted in yield reduction. Thus, selection may be possible for these characters for improving yield.

Keywords: Rice Genotypes; Full Irrigation; Vegetative Stage Drought; Reproductive Stage Drought; Drought Stress; Morphological Traits; Breeding Lines.



  1. Tilahun-Tadesse F., et al. “Effect of Hydro-Priming and Pre-Germinating Rice Seed on the Yield and Terminal Moisture Stress Mitigation of Rain-Fed Lowland Rice”. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 2.2 (2013): 89-97.
  2. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Rome (2011). 
  3. Singh MP. “Rice productivity in India under variable climates” (2009). 
  4. Akande T. “An Overview of Nigerian Rice Economy” Monograph published by the Nigerian Institution of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Ibadan (2003).
  5. Federal Republic of Nigeria. “National Rice Development strategy” (NRDS). For the Coalition of African Rice Development (CARD) (2009).
  6. Oyeleye O.. “The Rise of Rice Production in Nigeria under ATA”. Leadership Magazine, Nigeria (2014).
  7. Khush GS. “What it will take to feed 5.0 billion rice consumers in 2030”. Plant Molecular Biology 59.1 (2005): 1-6.
  8. Rockwood WG. “Rice Research and production in the 21st century symposium honouring”. Robert F. Chandry Jr. IRRI, Los Banos Philippines (2001): 224.
  9. Mohammadi-Nejad G., et al. “Assessment of rice germplasm for salt tolerance using microsatellite markers associated with the saltol QTL”. African Journal of Biotechnology 7.6 (2008): 730-736.
  10. Zhang L., et al. “Identification of Gene Modules Associated with Drought Response in Rice by Network-Based Analysis”. Plos One 7 (2012): e33748.
  11. Wang WS., et al. “Drought-induced site-specific DNA methylation and its association with drought tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)”. Journal of Experimental Botany 62 (2011): 1951-1960.
  12. Jiban M. “Genetics and genetic improvement of drought resistance in crop plants”. Current Science 80.6 (2001): 25.
  13. IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). Rough rice production by country and geographical region-USDA. Trend in the Rice Economy. In: World rice statistics (2009). 
  14. Bimpong IK., et al. “Identification of QTLs for Drought-Related Traits in Alien Introgression Lines Derived from Crosses of Rice (Oryza sativa cv. IR64) × O. glaberrima under Lowland Moisture Stress”. Journal of Plant Biology 54 (2011): 237-250.
  15. IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). Rice production and processing (2011).
  16. Srividhya A., et al. “Molecular Mapping of QTLs for Yield and its Components under Two Water Supply Conditions in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)”. Journal of Crop Science Biotechnology 14.1 (2011): 45-56.
  17. Wang H., et al. “Effect of water stress on reactive oxygen species generation and protection system in rice during grain-filling stage”. Agricultural Science China 9 (2010): 633-641.
  18. SAS. SAS systems for Windows. Version 9.1 Edition. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA (2003).
  19. Sani S. “Root architectural response of rice genotype to drought at seedling stage”. (BSc unpublished project). Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Nigeria (2010).
  20. Zubaer MA., et al. “Effects of Water Stress on Growth and Yield Attributes of Aman Rice Germplasm”. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production 2.6 (2007): 25-30.
  21. Sikuku PA., et al. “Yield Components and Gas Exchange Responses of Nerica Rice Varieties (Oryza Sativa L.) to Vegetative and Reproductive Stage Water Deficit”. Global Journals Incorporated USA 12.3 (2012).
  22. Gana AS. “Variability studies on the response of rice varieties to biotic and abiotic stresses”. Phd Thesis, University of Ilorin. Nigeria (2006). 
  23. Blum A. “Effective use of water (EUW) and not water-use efficiency (WUE) is the target of crop yield improvement under drought stress”. Field Crops Research 112 (2009): 119-123.
  24. Blum A. “Drought Resistance: Plant Breeding for Stress Environments”. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, (1988): 43-77.
  25. Lafitte R., et al. “Using secondary traits to help identify drought-tolerant genotypes”. In: Fischer K. S., Lafitte R Fukai S., et al. (eds) Breeding rice for drought prone environments. IRRI, Los Banos. Philippines. (2003): 37-48.
  26. Subashri M., et al. “Trait identification and QTL validation for reproductive stage drought resistance in rice using selective genotyping of near flowering RILs”. Euphytica 166 (2008): 291-305.
  27. Blum A. Drought tolerance — is it a complex trait? P 17-22. In: Saxena NP and O’Toole JC eds. Field Screening for Drought Tolerance in Crop Plants with Emphasis on             Rice: Proceedings of an International Workshop on Field Screening for Drought Tolerance in Rice, 11-14 Dec 2000, ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. ICRISAT and the Rockefeller Foundation, New York (2002). 
  28. Efisue AA. “Studies of drought tolerance in interspecific progenies of Oryza glaberrima (Steud.) and O. sativa (L.) and an appraisal of the use of male gametocytes in rice hybridization”. PhD thesis. University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa (2006).
  29. Ndjiondjop MN., et al. “Drought resistance in an interspecific backcross population of rice (Oryza spp.) derived from the cross WAB56-104 (O. sativa) × CG14 (O. glaberrima)”. Plant Science 179.4 (2010): 364-373.
  30. Lanceras CJ., et al. “Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Drought Tolerance at Reproductive Stage in Rice”. Plant Physiology 135 (2004): 384-399. 
  31. Zou GH., et al. “The capacity and genetic base of canopy temperature (CT) as indicator on drought tolerant (DT) in rice reproductive stage”. In: Poland, D., Sawkins M., Ribaut, J.M., and Hoisington D. Resilient Crops for Water Limited Environments: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Cuernavaca (2004): 345-347.
  32. Babu CR., et al. “Genetic analysis of drought resistance in rice by molecular markers: association between secondary traits and field performance”. Crop Science 43 (2003): 1457-1469.
  33. Sellammal R., et al. “Association and heritability studies for drought resistance under varied moisture stress regimes in backcross inbred population of rice”. Rice Science 21.3 (2014): 150-161.
  34. Kamoshita A., et al. “Genotypic variation in response of rainfed-lowland rice to prolonged drought and rewatering”. Plant Production Science 7 (2004): 406-420.
  35. Akram HM., et al. “Impact of Water Deficit Stress on Various Physiological and Agronomic Traits of Three Basmati Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Cultivars”. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 23.5 (2013): 1415-1423.
  36. Mostajeran A and Rahimi-Eichi V. “Effects of Drought Stress on Growth and Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars and Accumulation of Proline and Soluble Sugars in Sheath and Blades of Their Different Ages Leaves”. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science 5.2 (2009): 264-272.


Citation: Sani Sadiya. “Morphological Analysis of Drought Tolerance Traits in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)". Acta Scientific Agriculture 4.3 (2020): 01-09.

Member In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is August 20, 2020.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US