Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 1

Preliminary Evaluation of the Potential of Macromycetes as Mediators in Bio-Hardening of Orchid Plantlets

Gastelbondo Manuel* and Nieto-Ramírez Ivonne Jeannettea

Chemistry Department, Science Faculty, National University of Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia

*Corresponding Author: Gastelbondo Manuel, Chemistry Department, Science Faculty, National University of Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

Received: December 04, 2019; Published: December 31, 2019



  The most efficient technique for the massive multiplication of orchids is micropropagation in vitro. Once plants are extracted from their containers they encounter abrupt changes in their environmental conditions, resulting in low survival rates. To avoid high levels of plant mortality an adaptation period called hardening is required. Conventional approaches for the hardening process apply expensive chemical substances such as pesticides and fertilizers that generate toxic residues. Alternative methodologies have explored the use of microorganisms to assist the adaptation phase, this is called bio-hardening. However, there are no reported scientific studies on the use of macro fungi in bio-hardening to the knowledge of the authors.
  The aim of this work is to explore the potential of macro fungi as bio-hardening agents of orchids. For this purpose, 5 macromycetes fungi where evaluated by co- culture to assist in the bio-hardening process of asymbiotically raised seedlings of orchids. Two orchid hybrids (Miltoniopsis Kumbia and LC. Irene Finney) and one species (Catasetum tabulare) where evaluated under co-culture treatments and a sterile substrate control during hardening. The results proved an enhanced development and improved survival rates for the co-cultured plantlets in comparison to the control. Survival rates are similar or better in comparison to other conventional and bio-hardening techniques mentioned in scientific studies. This is the first report to the knowledge of the authors of macromycetes used as bio-hardening agents of vitro plants and poses a new sustainable clean alternative for the ornamental plant industry.

Keywords: Bio Hardening; Orchids; Macro Fungi; In vitro; Ex vitro; PGR; Cattleya; Miltoniopsis; Catasetum



  1. Nowak J. “Review Benefits of In vitro “Biotization” of Plant Tissue Cultures with Microbial Inoculants”. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant 34 (1997): 122-130. 
  2. Deb CR and Imchen T. “An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants”. Biotechnology 9.1 (2010): 79-83.
  3. Sánchez de Prager M. Las Endomicorrizas: Expresión Bioedáfica de Importancia En El Trópico”. Banco de la República: Palmira (2007).
  4. Hossain MM., et al. “Improved Ex vitro Survival of Asymbiotically Raised Seedlings of Cymbidium Using Mycorrhizal Fungi Isolated from Distant Orchid Taxa”. Scientia Horticulturae 159 (2013): 109-112.
  5. Killebrew K and Wolff H. Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Technologies. Agricultural Policy and Statistics Team of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Evans School Policy Analysis and Research (EPAR) (2010). 
  6. National Association of Professional Environmentalists. The Impacts of the Flower Industry on Environment and Peoples Livelihoods in Uganda (2012): 1-52.
  7. Kothari RM. “Optimization of Secondary Hardening Process of Banana Plantlets (Musa Paradisiaca L . Var. Grand Nain)”. 5 (2006): 394-399.
  8. Ordoñez NF., et al. “Efecto de Hongos Endófitos de Orquídeas Del Grupo Rhizoctonia Y Otros Endófitos Cultivables Sobre El Desarrollo de Plantas de Vanilla Planifolia JACKS”. Universidad Nacional de Colombia (2012).
  9. Mosquera-espinosa AT., et al. “The Double Life of Ceratobasidium : Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Potential for Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia Solani Sheath Blight of Rice”. Mycologia 105.1 (2013): 141-150.
  10. Verma S., et al. “Optimization of the Protocols for Surface Sterilization, Regeneration and Acclimatization of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni”. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 11.2 (2011): 221-227.
  11. Das A., et al. “Cocultivation of Piriformospora Indica with Medicinal Plants: Case Studies”. (2013).
  12. Müller A., et al. “Growing Poplars for Research with and without Mycorrhizas”. Frontiers in Plant Science 4 (2013): 332.
  13. Pryce TM., et al. “Rapid Identification of Fungi by Sequencing the I T S L and ITS2 Regions Using an Automated Capillary Electrophoresis System”. Medical Mycology 41 (2003): 369-381.
  14. Nelson PE., et al. “Fumonisins, Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium Species: Biology, Chemistry, and Significance”. Annual Review of Phytopathology 31.1 (1993): 233-252.
  15. Xia Q., et al. “A Comprehensive Review of the Structure Elucidation and Biological Activity of Triterpenoids from Ganoderma Spp.”. Molecules 19.11 (2014): 17478-17535.
  16. Türker M., et al. “Determination of Phytohormones Level in Some Dried and Fresh Macrofungi Taxa”. Phyton 45 (2005): 145-158.
  17. Popova M., et al. “Antibacterial Triterpenes from the Threatened Wood-Decay Fungus Fomitopsis Rosea”. Fitoterapia 80.5 (2009): 263-266.
  18. Zaragoza N. “Efecto de Extractos de Origen Fúngico En La Germinación Asimbiótica in Vitro de Guarianthe Aurantiaca (Bateman Ex Lindl.) Dressler et W. E. Higgins Y Euchile Mariae (Ames) Withner X Euchile Citrina (La Llave et Lexarza) Withner (Orchidaceae), Universidad Nacional Auóonoma de México, (2013).
  19. Ríos JL., et al. “A Group of Potential Anticancer Compounds”. Journal of Natural Products 75.11 (2012): 2016-2044.
  20. Özcan B. “GA 3, ABA and Cytokinin Production by Lentinus Tigrinus and Laetiporus Sulphureus Fungi Cultured in the Medium of Olive Oil Mill Waste 2001”. Turkish Journal of Biology 25.4 (2001): 453-462.
  21. Ünyayar S., et al. “Abscisic Acid Production by Pleurotus Florida Cultured in Various Conditions and Its Relation to Growth”. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 9978 (2016).
  22. Gründemann C., et al. “Comparative Chemical and Biological Investigations of β-Glucan-Containing Products from Shiitake Mushrooms”. Journal of Functional Foods 18 (2015): 692-702.
  23. Chan W., et al. “Aislamiento y Evaluación de la Actividad Enzimática Ligninolítica de Macromicetos del Estado de Veracruz Mexico”. Revista internacional de Contaminación Ambiental 32.3 (2016): 339-351.
  24. Zjawiony JK and Zjawiony JK. “Biologically Active Compounds from Aphyllophorales (Polypore) Fungi Biologically Active Compounds from Aphyllophorales (Polypore) Fungi ⊥”. Journal of natural products 67.2 (2004): 300-310.
  25. Murashige T and Skoog F. “A Revised Medium for Rapid Growth and Bio Assays with Tobacco Tissue Culture”. Physiologia Plantarum 15 (1962): 473-497.
  26. Arditti J. Micropropagation of Orchids, Second.; Publishing, Blackwell: Oxford (2008).
  27. Echeverri AP., et al. “Manuel de Cultivo de Orquídeas, Quinta”. Orquideología, SC. de, Ed. Sociedad Colombiana de Orquideología: Medellín (2011).
  28. Franco M., et al. “Hardening of the national flower of Colombia, the threatened Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae), from in vitro culture with previous invigoration phase”. Revista de biología Tropical 55.2 (2007). 
  29. Díaz LP., et al. “Acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya obtained by micropropagation”. Revista Colombiana de Biotecnologia 21 (2010): 27-40.
  30. Otero JT and Bayman P. “Germinación simbiótica y asimbiótica en semillas de orquídeas epifitas”. Acta Agronomica 58.4 (2009): 270-276.
  31. Hajong S., et al. “Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Regeneration Potential of Axenic Nodal Segments of Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall. Ex Lindl”. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 15 (2013): 1425-1435.
  32. Thomas J., et al. “Influence of Beneficial Microorganisms During In vivo Acclimatization of In vitro-derived Tea (Camellia sinensis) Plants”. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 101 (2010): 365-370.
  33. Galdiano Júnior RF., et al. “Auxin-producing bacteria isolated from the roots of Cattleya walkeriana, an endangered Brazilian orchid, and their role in acclimatization”. de Macedo Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 35 (2011): 729-737.
  34. Aggarwal S., et al. “In vitro Symbiotic Seed Germination and Molecular Characterization of Associated Endophytic Fungi in a Commercially Important and Endangered Indian Orchid Vanda Coerulea Griff. Ex Lindl”. European Journal of Environmental Sciences 2.1 (2012): 33-42.
  35. Rassmusen HN., et al. “Germination and Seedling Establishment in Orchids: A Complex of Requirements”. Annals of Botany 116 (2015): 391-402.


Citation: Gastelbondo Manuel and Nieto-Ramírez Ivonne Jeannettea. “Preliminary Evaluation of the Potential of Macromycetes as Mediators in Bio-Hardening of Orchid Plantlets"Acta Scientific Agriculture 4.1 (2020): 141-146.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.014

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US