Acta Scientific Agriculture

Review ArticleVolume 2 Issue 7

Review of Comprehensive Staining Techniques Used to Differentiate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi from Plant Root Tissues

Jonathan Daniel Hulse*

Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, United States

*Corresponding Author: Jonathan Daniel Hulse, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, United States.

Received: April 27, 2018; Published: June 08, 2018

Citation: Jonathan Daniel Hulse. "Review of Comprehensive Staining Techniques Used to Differentiate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi from Plant Root Tissues". Acta Scientific Agriculture 2.7 (2018).


  Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are beneficial obligate endophytes that inhabit the root systems of the majority of land plants. Various microscopy techniques are commonly utilized to image these fungi, and the use of differential stains is a critical step in the imaging process. Differential stains are used to provide contrast between the fungal tissues and the host plant cells. Some staining procedures utilize harmful chemicals that are potential health hazards to the microscopist. A comprehensive review of staining procedures has not been assembled for researchers studying AMF, and this paper should offer insight into potential differential stains to image fungal organelles within the roots of the host plant. This review is designed to cover the majority of staining techniques used to image AMF, and to suggest the safest stains for the correct microscopic technique.

Keywords: Mycorrhizae; Fungi; Glomeromycota; Microscopy; Bright Field; Electron Microscopy; Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy; AMF; Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi; Microscope

Copyright: © 2018 Jonathan Daniel Hulse. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.014

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