Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences (ASPS)(ISSN: 2581-5423)

Research Article Volume 8 Issue 7

Antioxidant Effects of Supplementation with Choice Vitamins C (Ascorbic Acid) And E (Tocopherol) on Rohypnol-Induced Kidney Damage of Male Wistar Rats

Hyacinth Tochukwu Eze1, Ezejindu Damian Nnabuihe2, Joshua Izuchukwu Abugu2* and Ifeanacho Ezeteonu Abireh3

1Department of Internal Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, College of Medicine Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria
2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria
3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Joshua Izuchukwu Abugu, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Received: May 27, 2024; Published: June 11, 2024

Abstract

This study was principally carried out to investigate the effect of Vitamins C and E on the rohypnol-induced kidney damage in male wistar rats. Twenty five adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups with five rats in each group (A, B, C, D and E). Group A, the control group received distilled water. Groups B, C and D received 1 mg/kg of Rohypnol, 1 mg/kg of Rohypnol+100 mg/kg of vitamin C, 1 mg/kg of Rohypnol+100 mg/kg of vitamin E and 1 mg/kg of Rohypnol+100 mg/kg of vitamin C and E of Rohypnol respectively. The animals were anaesthesized under ketamine followed by cardiac puncture after three weeks of administration and the kidney were harvested and fixed in 10% formal saline for histological processing, blood were collected via cardiac puncture for biochemical studies. The results obtained in this study following the administration of Vitamin C&E and increasing dosage of rohypnol shows a progressive improvement in the test group when comparing to the other group. The crucial role of Vitamin C and E in renal functions, as well as responses to the histoarchitecture is well supported by the evidences presented in this study.

Keywords: Flunitrazepam Vitamin C and E (Rohypnol), Kidney; Histoarchitecture; Benzodiazepine

References

  1. Mattila M A K and Larni H M. “Flunitrazepam: A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use”. Drugs 20 (1980): 353-374.
  2. George KA and Dundee J W. “Relative amnesic actions of diazepam, funitrazepam and lorazepam in man”. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 4 (1977): 45-50.
  3. Calhoun S R., et al. “Abuse of funitrazepam (Rohypnol) and other benzodiazepines in Austin and South Texas”. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 28 (1996): 1-7.
  4. Maxwell J and Hall J. “Memorandum to members, NIDA Community Epidemiology Work Group”. May 2 (1995).
  5. Badiye A and Gupta M. “Rohypnol: A review on abuse as date rape drug”. Helix 3 (2012): 161-164.
  6. Akhigbe RE., et al. “Codeine exerts cardiorenal injury via upregulation of adenine deaminase/xanthine oxidase and caspase 3 signaling”. Life Sciences 273 (2021): 118717.
  7. Hall W D., et al. “Why young people’s substance use matters for global health”. The Lancet Psychiatry 3 (2016): 265-279.
  8. Buck J M and Siegel JA. “The effects of adolescent methamphetamine exposure”. Frontiers in Neuroscience 9 (2015): 151.
  9. Abio A., et al. “Substance use and sociodemographic correlates among adolescents in a low-income sub-Saharan setting”. Journal of Injury and Violence Research 1 (2020): 21.
  10. Mehanović E., et al. “Correlates of cannabis and other illicit drugs use among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria”. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 206 (2020): 107457.
  11. Grant CN and Belanger RE. “Cannabis and Canada’s children and youth”. Paediatrics and Child Health2 (2017): 98-102.
  12. Blanco C., et al. “Cannabis use and risk of psychiatric disorders: Prospective evidence from a us national longitudinal study”. JAMA Psychiatry4 (2016): 388-395.
  13. Degenhardt L and Hall W. “Extent of illicit drug use and dependence, and their contribution to the global burden of disease”. The Lancet9810 (2012): 55-70.
  14. Pierce M., et al. “Insights into the link between drug use and criminality: Lifetime offending of criminally-active opiate users”. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 179 (2017): 309-316.
  15. Volkow ND., et al. “Adverse health effects of marijuana use”. New England Journal of Medicine23 (2014): 2219-2227.
  16. Di Forti M., et al. “Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users”. Schizophrenia Bulletin6 (2013): 1509-1517.
  17. Ritchwood TD., et al. “Risky sexual behavior and substance use among adolescents: A meta-analysis”. Children and Youth Services Review 52 (2015): 74-88.
  18. Doku D. “Substance use and risky sexual behaviours among sexually experienced Ghanaian youth”. BMC Public Health1 (2012): 571.
  19. Qureshi AI., et al. “Cocaine use and the likelihood of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Follow-up Study”. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology1 (2014): 76-82.
  20. Chaurasia BD and Garg K. “Human anatomy: regional and applied dissection and clinical”. New Delhi, India: Cbs Publishers & Distributors (2010): 1471- 2458- 12- 571.
  21. Alexandra P., et al. “Gendered Dietary Supplements: Does the Marketing Reflect Different Formulations?" International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings15 (2023): 19.
  22. Carr AC and Frei B. “Toward a New Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin C Based on Antioxidant and Health Effects in Humans”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (1999): 1086-1107.
  23. Udodi Princewill Sopuluchukwu., et al. “A Study on the Neurotoxicity of Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) Administration on the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Wistar Rats”. Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy 2 (2021): 26-32.
  24. Akhigbe RE., et al. “Upregulation of Uric Acid Production and Caspase 3 Signaling Mediates Rohypnol-Induced Cardiorenal Damage’. Cardiovascular Page toxicology (2022): 13-19.
  25. Ajilore Bamidele., et al. “Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. on cadmium-induced liver and kidney damage in male Wistar rats”. International Journal of Phytotherapy Research 2 (2012): 1-50.
  26. Aliyu R., et al. “The Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Commiphora africana (Burseraceae) on Rat Liver and Kidney Functions”. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2 (2007): 373-379.

Citation

Citation: Joshua Izuchukwu Abugu., et al. “Antioxidant Effects of Supplementation with Choice Vitamins C (Ascorbic Acid) And E (Tocopherol) on Rohypnol-Induced Kidney Damage of Male Wistar Rats".Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences 8.7 (2024): 36-43.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2024 Joshua Izuchukwu Abugu., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In




News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US