Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences (ASPS)(ISSN: 2581-5423)

Research Article Volume 8 Issue 1

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Formulated Water-in-oil Cream Containing Extracts of Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea) L. Leaves

Offor Amarachi Chukwuma1*, Ugoeze Kenneth C1 and Ofoefule Sabinus I2

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutical aaTechnology and Industrial Pharmacy University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Offor Amarachi Chukwuma, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Received: October 30, 2023; Published: December 08, 2023


This work involved extraction of the active components of Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea) leaves with various organic solvents in order of increasing polarity using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. The extracts obtained were screened for phytochemical components. Extracts with antimicrobial susceptibility were formulated into water-in-oil creams in varying concentrations using reference standard. Formulated creams were evaluated using various parameters such as organoleptic property, homogeneity, pH, viscosity and irritability test on rabbit skin. Extracts were tested against the following typed cultured organisms Staphyloccus aureus NCTC 6571, Pseudonomas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli NCTC 10418, Salmonella typhi and Candida albican using agar well diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Cajanus cajan leaves showed presence of alkaloid, phenol, flavonoid, saponin, terpenoids. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the growth of all bacteria and showed antimicrobial activity against fungi while the aqueous extract had no activity on the organism. N-hexane extract was only active on gram positive bacteria. Highest antimicrobial activity on gram negative bacteria was shown by ethyl acetate extract while ethanol extract showed highest activity on gram positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts on the organism was in the range of 3.125 mg/mL – 50 mg/mL. Products showed the same antimicrobial activity with the extracts. The formulated creams have the same activity as the extracts with Cream containing 5% of the ethanol extract having the highest activity against Bacillus subtilis. Formulation C5 containing 1% ethyl acetate extract showed activity against all organisms. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies of the creams showed that the extracts and the excipients were compatible. Also, the products (C1-C6) were tested on the rabbit skin to check the irritability potential, it did not irritate rabbit skin, indicating the creams were safe for topical applications.

Keywords: Cajanus cajan; Antimicrobial Activities; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; Phytochemicals; Topical Cream; Bacteria; Susceptibility


  1. Okafo S E., et al. “Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial topical creams from ethanol extract of Vernonia ambigua leaves”. Nigeria Journal of Pharmacy (2019): 249-255.
  2. Kavita V., et al. “Microbial biofilm: Current challenges in health care Industry”. Journal of Applied Biotechnology and Bioengineering3 (2018): 160-164.
  3. Francesca P., et al. “Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global multifaceted Phenomenon”. Taylor and Francis Pathogens and Global health. Rome, Italy 109.7 (2016): 309-318.
  4. Iwu MM. “Pharmocognostical Profile of Selected Medicinal Plants”. in: Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Iwu .M.M (ed), CRC Press, Florida, USA (2014).
  5. Crop T. “Pigeon pea: food for Drought”. (2014).
  6. Belete KA. “The Dietary use of Pigeon pea for Human and Animal Diets”. The Scientific World Journal Werabe Ethiopia (2022).
  7. Dilipkumar P., et al. “Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan L.Millsp”. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research 4 (2011): 207-214.
  8. Proma RO., et al. “Pharmacological and Phytochemical properties of Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth (Fabaceae): A review”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research (2018).
  9. Lan C. “Comparison of plants used for skin and Stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian Ethnomedicine”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicinal plants 33 (2007): 22-28.
  10. Ganeshan S. “Traditional oral care medicinal plants survey of Tamil Nadu”. 7 (2008): 166-172.
  11. Duke JA. “Handbook of legumes of world economic importance”. Pienum Press Springer New York, U.S.A (1981a).
  12. Ingle K P., et al. “Phytochemicals: Extraction methods, Identification and detection of bioactive compounds from plants extracts”. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6 (2017): 32-36.
  13. Yuan-gang Z., et al. “Chemical composition of SFE-CO2 extracts from Cajanus cajan (L) Huth and their antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo”. Phytomedicine 17 (2010): 1095-1101.
  14. Akinola O O., et al. “Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. Moringa oleifera Lam, Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L from Nigeria”. Journal of Natural Product Research 4 (2008): 573-578.
  15. Allen L. “Ansel’s Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems”. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia (2014).
  16. Kong Y., et al. “Cajanuslactone, a new coumarin with anti-bacterial activity from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp Leaves”. 121.4 (2010): 1150-1155.
  17. Majekodunmi SO. “Review of Extraction of medicinal Plants for Pharmaceutical research”. MRJMMs 3 (2015): 521-527.
  18. Pandey A and Tripathi S. “Concept of standardization, extraction and pre-phytochemical screening strategies for herbal drug”. Journal of Pharmacognosy Phytochemical 2 (2014): 115-119.
  19. Harborne JB. “Phytochemical Methods. A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis”. SpringerLinks (1973).
  20. Obadoni BO and Ochuko P O. “Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria”. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science 8 (2001): 203-208.
  21. Solich P., et al. “Spectrophotometric determination of cardiac glycosides by flow-injection analysis.” Journal of Analytical Chemistry (1992): 199-203.
  22. Marina RP., et al. “Progress on the development of rapid methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing”. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12 (2013): 2710-2717.
  23. Pitt TL and Barer M. “Classification, Identification and typing of microorganisms”. Journal of Medical Microbiology (2012): 24-38.
  24. The Pharmaceutical Codex. 12th The Pharmaceutical Press, London (1994).
  25. Gad SC. “Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Handbook: Production and Processes”. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, USA (2008).
  26. Ashishi A., et al. “Preparation and evaluation of polyherbal cosmetic cream”. Der Pharmacia Lettre 1 (2013): 83-85.
  27. European Pharmacopoeia, (2007).
  28. Sanjay B., et al. “Stability Testing of Pharmaceutical Products”. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences. India (2012).
  29. Mohanty P K., et al. “Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Cajanus cajan” Linn”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical technology 2 (2011): 49-52.
  30. Pearson DA. “The Chemical Analysis of Foods (7th ed)”. Churchill and living stone, Edinburgh, London (1976): 355-356.
  31. Pratima H and Pratima M. “Invitro antibacterial activities of different solvent extracts of Cajanus cajan (L) seed coat and cotyledon”. Asian Journal of pharmaceutical and Clinical Research5 (2018).
  32. Okorie O and Ofoefule SI. “Creams and ointments”. In: A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy. Ed Samakin (Nig) Enterprises, Isolo, Lagos (2002).
  33. Okigbo RN and Omodamino. “Antimicrobial effect of leaf extract of Pigeon pea { (Cajanus cajan) (L) Millsp} on some human pathogens”. Journal of Herbs, Spices and medicinal Plants1 (2007): 117-127.


Citation: Offor Amarachi Chukwuma., et al. “Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Formulated Water-in-oil Cream Containing Extracts of Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea) L. Leaves".Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences 8.1 (2024): 20-34.


Copyright: © 2024 Offor Amarachi Chukwuma., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US