Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences (ASPS)(ISSN: 2581-5423)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 11

COVID-19-Osteoarthritis Interactions, Predictions, and Mitigation: Can Blue Zone Findings Help? Overview and Commentary

Ray Marks*

Department Clinical Research and Education, Osteoarthritis Research Center, Canada

*Corresponding Author: Ray Marks, Department Clinical Research and Education, Osteoarthritis Research Center, Canada.

Received: September 29, 2023; Published: October 17, 2023


The corona virus-19 [COVID-19], which unexpectedly heightened multiple health challenges among older adults beginning in December 2019, continues to influence many facets of elder health including having a possible role in exacerbating osteoarthritis linkages or a combination of linkages in 2023 and possibly beyond this period. At the same time, the recent 2050 osteoarthritis prevalence predictions that may well be underestimates imply that any effort to minimize osteoarthritis disability must be highly warranted in its own right, because osteoarthritis is a major risk factor for severe COVID-19 infections. Based on key 2022-2023 data base posting, a small body of current work strengthens a case in our view for more elucidation and interpretation of the clinical significance presently alluded to and to not overlook what has been learned about population wellbeing and healthy aging from both the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the health successes of Blue Zone locations.

 Keywords: Blue Zones; COVID-19; Older Adults; Osteoarthritis; Prevention; Risk Factors


  1. Tizazu A M., et al. “Aging, inflammaging and immunosenescence as risk factors of severe COVID-19”. Immunity and Ageing1 (2022): 53.
  2. Bolinski R S., et al. “The Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drug use behaviors, fentanyl exposure, and harm reduction service support among people who use drugs in rural settings”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 4 (2022): 2230.
  3. Fan X., et al. “The effects of obesity and metabolic abnormalities on severe COVID-19-related outcomes after vaccination: a population-based study”. Cell Metabolism4 (2023): 585-600.e5.
  4. Hoveidaei A H., et al. “Burden of hand osteoarthritis in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): an epidemiological analysis from 1990 to 2019”. Journal of Hand Surgery48 (3 (2023): 245-256.
  5. Zhao G., et al. “Global Burden of osteoarthritis associated with high body mass index in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019”. Endocrine1 (2023): 60-71.
  6. Sobieh B H., et al. “Beyond mechanical loading: the metabolic contribution of obesity in osteoarthritis unveils novel therapeutic targets”. Heliyon9.5 (2023): e15700.
  7. Sajjadi N B., et al. “Delayed discovery: the COVID-19 pandemic's influence on osteoarthritis clinical trials”. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine (2023). 10.1515/jom-2023-0028.
  8. Yao Q., et al. “Osteoarthritis: pathogenic signaling pathways and therapeutic targets”. Signal Transduction Targeted Therapy1 (2023): 56.
  9. GBD 2021 Osteoarthritis Collaborators. “Global, regional, and national burden of osteoarthritis, 1990-2020 and projections to 2050: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021”. The Lancet Rheumatology9 (2021): e508–e522.
  10. World Health Organization (2023).
  11. Long H., et al. “Prevalence trends of site‐specific osteoarthritis from 1990 to 2019: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019”. Arthritis and Rheumatology74.7 (2022): 1172-1183.
  12. Chen X., et al. “Temporal trends in the disease burden of osteoarthritis from 1990 to 2019, and projections until 2030”. Plos One18.7 (2023): e0288561.
  13. Kloprogge S E., et al. “Is radiographic osteoarthritis associated with pain and disability of the ankle?”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage Open5.3 (2023): 100383.
  14. Han S. “Osteoarthritis year in review 2022: biology”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage (2022).
  15. Salomão R., et al. “Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in COVID-19: molecular targets, mechanisms, and insights for therapeutic interventions”. Biology6 (2023): 843.
  16. Huang Y X., et al. “A shared genetic contribution to osteoarthritis and COVID-19 outcomes: a large-scale genome-wide cross-trait analysis. Frontiers in Immunology14 (2023): 1184958.
  17. Liu J., et al. “New-onset arthritis following COVID-19 vaccination: a systematic review of case reports”. Vaccines11.3 (2023): 665.
  18. Tuharov Y., et al. “Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMP-1 in patients with osteoarthritis after recovery from COVID-19”. Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials 18.2 (2023): 123-128.
  19. Krenytska D., et al. “Circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis-related growth factors in patients with osteoarthritis after COVID-19”. Frontiers in Medicine10 (2023): 1168487.
  20. Makaremi S., et al. “The role of IL-1 family of cytokines and receptors in pathogenesis of COVID-19”. Inflammation Research71.7-8 (2022): 923-947.
  21. Motta F., et al. “Inflammaging and osteoarthritis”. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology 64.2 (2023): 222-238.
  22. Zhang Y., et al. “Identification of 3 key genes as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets for OA and COVID-19”. Frontiers in Immunology14 (2023): 1167639.
  23. Huet A., et al. “TGFB1FOXO1, and COMPgenes expression in blood of patients with osteoarthritis after SARS-CoV2 Infection”. Cytology Genetics 57.2 (2023): 128-133.
  24. Fedorchenko Y and Zimba O. “Long COVID in autoimmune rheumatic diseases”. Rheumatology International43.7 (2023): 1197-1207.
  25. Plaut S. “Long COVID-19 and viral "fibromyalgia-ness": suggesting a mechanistic role for fascial myofibroblasts”. Frontiers in Medicine (2023): 952278.
  26. Chen Z., et al. “Bioinformatics and system biology approach to identify potential common pathogenesis for COVID-19 infection and osteoarthritis”. Scientific Report13.1 (2023): 9330.
  27. Chen Z., et al. “Identification of four-gene signature to diagnose osteoarthritis through bioinformatics and machine learning methods”. Cytokine169 (2023): 156300.
  28. King L K. “Osteoarthritis and comorbidity: time for action”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 31.4 (2023): 423-424.
  29. da Rocha F A C., et al. “Tackling osteoarthritis during COVID-19 pandemic”. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 80.2 (2021): 151-153.
  30. Hunter D J., et al. “Osteoarthritis in 2020 and beyond: a Lancet Commission”. The Lancet396.10264 (2020): 1711-1712.
  31. Atukorala I and Hunter D J. “A review of quality-of-life in elderly osteoarthritis”. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research23.4 (2023): 365-381.
  32. Nimitha KJ., et al. “SYMPOSIUM health related quality of life and depression in older adults with knee osteoarthritis pain-cross-sectional telephonic survey in COVID 19 pandemic”. Indian Journal of Psychiatry64 (2022): S634.
  33. Zhakhina G., et al. “The regional burden and disability-adjusted life years of knee osteoarthritis in Kazakhstan 2014–2020”. Biomedicine11.1 (2023): 216.
  34. Clerbaux L A., et al. “Factors modulating COVID-19: a mechanistic understanding based on the adverse outcome pathway framework”. Journal of Clinical Medicine11.15 (2022): 4464.
  35. Lauwers M., et al. “COVID-19 in joint ageing and osteoarthritis: current status and perspectives”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23.2 (2022): 720.
  36. Atkins JL., et al. “Preexisting comorbidities predicting COVID-19 and mortality in the UK Biobank Community Cohort”. Journals Of Gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences75.11 (2020): 2224-2230.
  37. Knebel C., et al. “COVID-19-related cancellation of elective orthopaedic surgery caused increased pain and psychosocial distress levels”. Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 29 (2021): 2379-2385.
  38. Puccinelli PJ., et al. “Reduced level of physical activity during COVID-19 pandemic is associated with depression and anxiety levels: An internet-based survey”. BMC Public Health 21.1 (2021): 425.
  39. Lebrasseur A., et al. “Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on older adults: rapid review”. JMIR Aging 4.2 (2021): e26474.
  40. Alhassan E., et al. “Did COVID-19 impact osteoarthritis–clinical perspective?”. Current Opinion on Rheumatology34.1 (2022): 68.
  41. Scheuing W J., et al. “The burden of osteoarthritis: Is it a rising problem?”. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology (2023): 101836.
  42. Morita Y., et al. “Physical and financial impacts caused by the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbate knee pain: a longitudinal study of a large-scale general population”. Modern Rheumatology33.2 (2023): 373-380.
  43. Chao P Y and Lee L Y. “Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health-related quality of life in older adults with preoperative knee osteoarthritis”. Hu li za zhi J Nurs.70.3 (2023): 26-36.
  44. Farrow L., et al. “Future demand for primary hip and knee arthroplasty in Scotland”. Musculoskeletal Care 2 (2023): 355-361.
  45. Reinbacher P., et al. “Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on early clinical outcome after total knee arthroplasty: a retrospective comparative analysis”. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 6 (2023): 3319-3326.
  46. Asvall J E. “Health for all in the 21st century a policy framework for the WHO European region”. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health1 (2000): 5-13.
  47. Zhang L., et al. “Mitochondrion: a bridge linking aging and degenerative diseases”. Life Science322 (2023): 121666.
  48. Ungvari Z., et al. “The multifaceted benefits of walking for healthy aging: from Blue Zones to molecular mechanisms”. GeroScience (2023): 1-29.
  49. Bays H E., et al. “Obesity pillars roundtable: Obesity and individuals from the Mediterranean region and Middle East”. Obesity Pillars 2 (2022): 100013.
  50. Musumeci G., et al. “Osteoarthritis in the XXIst century: risk factors and behaviours that influence disease onset and progression”. International Journal of Molecular Science 16.3 (2015): 6093-6112.
  51. Liu T., et al. “Vegetarian diets, circulating miRNA expression and healthspan in subjects living in the Blue Zone”. Precision Clinical Medicine 3.4 (2020): 245-259.
  52. Pes G M., et al. “Diet and longevity in the Blue Zones: a set-and-forget issue?”. Maturitas164 (2022): 31-37.
  53. Kahleova H., et al. “Plant-based diets for healthy aging”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 9 (2020): 1-2.
  54. Stefanadis C., et al. “Extremely reduced COVID-19 mortality in a “Blue Zone”: an observational cohort study”. Hellenic Journal of Cardiology68 (2022): 60.
  55. Kreouzi M., et al. “Lessons learned from blue zones, lifestyle medicine pillars and beyond: an update on the contributions of behavior and genetics to wellbeing and longevity”. American College of Lifestyle Medicine (2022): 15598276221118494.
  56. Poulain M and Herm A. “Blue Zone”. Positive Ageing and Learning from Centenarians: Living Longer and Better (2021).
  57. Buettner D and Skemp S. “Blue zones: lessons from the world’s longest lived”. American College of Lifestyle Medicine 5 (2016): 318-321.
  58. Castruita P A., et al. “Genetic, social, and lifestyle drivers of healthy aging and longevity”. Current Genetic Medicine Reports volume10.3 (2022): 25-34.
  59. Nestle M. “Preventing obesity—it is time for multiple policy strategies”. JAMA Internal Medicine182.9 (2022): 973-974.
  60. Quach LT and Burr JA. “Perceived social isolation, social disconnectedness and falls: the mediating role of depression”. Aging Mental Health 25.6 (2021): 1029-1034.
  61. Norman RE., et al. “Typically atypical: COVID-19 presenting as a fall in an older adult”. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 7 (2020): E36-E37.
  62. Kostoff RN., et al. “Modifiable contributing factors to COVID-19: a comprehensive review”. Food and Chemical Toxicology171 (2023): 113511.


Citation: Ray Marks. “COVID-19-Osteoarthritis Interactions, Predictions, and Mitigation: Can Blue Zone Findings Help? Overview and Commentary". Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences 7.11 (2023): 26-36.


Copyright: © 2023 Ray Marks. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US