Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences (ASPS)(ISSN: 2581-5423)

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 6

Enhancement of Bioavailability of Some Cardiovascular Drugs by Novel Nano-carrier Delivery System

Alisha Banafar1, Shiv Shankar Shukla2, Sandip Prasad Tiwari3, Chanchal Deep Kaur1, Dhanush Ram Turkane4, Alok Singh Thakur4, Jhakeshwar Prasad5* and Monika Bhairam6

1Rungta College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, India
2Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, India
3Faculty of Pharmacy, Kalinga University, India
4Shri Shankaracharya Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, India
5Shri Shankaracharya College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, India
6Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, India

*Corresponding Author: Alisha Banafar, Rungta College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, India, Email ID:

Received: April 26, 2022; Published: May 30, 2022


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have emerged as a major danger to human life and health. Despite the fact that numerous medicines working through various mechanisms of action are available in the market as traditional formulations for the treatment of CVDs, they are still far from adequate due to poor water solubility, limited biological activity, non-targeting, and drug resistance. With the advancement of nanotechnology, nano-drug delivery systems (NDDSs) provide a novel drug delivery mechanism for the treatment of CVDs, displaying significant advantages in tackling the aforementioned difficulties. Nonetheless, several issues with NDDSs, such as cytotoxicity, must be addressed. The kinds and targeting techniques of NDDSs were covered in this study, as well as recent research advancements in the diagnosis and management of CVDs. In order to give new ideas for the enhancement of cardiovascular medications, future prospects for nano-carriers in drug delivery for CVDs include gene therapy. Furthermore, its safety was addressed in the evaluation.

Keywords: Nano-drug Delivery System; Cardiovascular Disease; Targeting Strategy; Application Progress; Safety


  1. Chandrasekhar S., et al. “Microarrays and microneedle arrays for delivery of peptides, proteins, vaccines and other applications”. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 10 (2013): 1155-1170.
  2. Rabl P., et al. “A quantum spin transducer based on nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays”. Nature Physics 6 (2010): 602-608.
  3. Shabnashmi PS., et al. “Therapeutic applications of Nanorobots-Respirocytes and Microbivores”. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 8 (2016): 605-609.
  4. Kadam RS., et al. “Nano-advantage in enhanced drug delivery with biodegradable nanoparticles: Contribution of reduced clearance”. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 40 (2012): 1380-1388.
  5. Jahan ST., et al. “Targeted Therapeutic Nanoparticles: An Immense Promise to Fight against Cancer”. Journal of Drug Delivery 2017 (2017): 9090325.
  6. Shreffler JW., et al. “Overcoming Hurdles in Nanoparticle Clinical Translation: The Influence of Experimental Design and Surface Modification”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 (2019): 6056.
  7. Ernsting MJ., et al. “Factors controlling the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and intratumoral penetration of nanoparticles”. Journal of Controlled Release 172 (2013): 782-794.
  8. Wu W., et al. “Endogenous pH-responsive nanoparticles with programmable size changes for targeted tumor therapy and imaging applications”. Theranostics 8 (2018): 3038-3058.
  9. Bhatia S. “Nanoparticles Types, Classification, Characterization, Fabrication Methods and Drug Delivery Applications”. In Natural Polymer Drug Delivery Systems: Nanoparticles, Plants, and Algae; Bhatia, S., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, Switzerland (2016): 33-93.
  10. Nakamura Y., et al. “Nanodrug Delivery: Is the Enhanced Permeability and Retention Effect Sufficient for Curing Cancer?” Bioconjugate Chemistry 27 (2016): 2225-2238.
  11. Fang J., et al. “The EPR effect: Unique features of tumor blood vessels for drug delivery, factors involved, and limitations and augmentation of the effect”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 63 (2011): 136-151.
  12. Yu MK., et al. “Targeting Strategies for Multifunctional Nanoparticles in Cancer Imaging and Therapy”. Theranostics 2 (2012): 3-44.
  13. Zhang S., et al. “Size-Dependent Endocytosis of Nanoparticles”. Advances in Material 21 (2009): 419-424.
  14. Gratton SE., et al. “The effect of particle design on cellular internalization pathways”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (2008): 11613-11618.
  15. Wang C., et al. “Investigation of endosome and lysosome biology by ultra pH-sensitive nanoprobes”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 113 (2017): 87-96.
  16. Casey JR., et al. “Sensors and regulators of intracellular pH”. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 11 (2010): 50-61.
  17. Walkey CD., et al. “Nanoparticle size and surface chemistry determine serum protein adsorption and macrophage uptake”. Journal of the American Chemical Society 134 (2012): 2139-2147.
  18. Hsu HJ., et al. “Dendrimer-based nanocarriers: A versatile platform for drug delivery”. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology 9 (2017): 1-21.
  19. Palmerston Mendes L., et al. “Dendrimers as Nanocarriers for Nucleic Acid and Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy”. Molecules 22 (2017): 1401.
  20. Crucho CIC., et al. “Polymeric nanoparticles: A study on the preparation variables and characterization methods”. Materials Science and Engineering: C 80 (2017): 771-784.
  21. Letchford K., et al. “In vitro human plasma distribution of nanoparticulate paclitaxel is dependent on the physicochemical properties of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (caprolactone) nanoparticles”. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 71 (2009): 196-206.
  22. Ahmad Z., et al. “Polymeric micelles as drug delivery vehicles”. RSC Advances 4 (2014): 17028-17038.
  23. Markovsky E., et al. “Anticancer polymeric nanomedicine bearing synergistic drug combination is superior to a mixture of individually-conjugated drugs”. Journal of Controlled Release 187 (2014): 145-157.
  24. Yang R., et al. “Combination therapy of paclitaxel and cyclopamine polymer-drug conjugates to treat advanced prostate cancer”. Nanomedicine -Uk 13 (2017): 391-401.
  25. Pang X., et al. “pH-responsive polymer-drug conjugates: Design and progress”. Journal of Controlled Release 222 (2016): 116-129.
  26. Lv S., et al. “Well-defined polymer-drug conjugate engineered with redox and pH-sensitive release mechanism for efficient delivery of paclitaxel”. Journal of Controlled Release 194 (2014): 220-227.
  27. Chen Z., et al. “Controlled release of free doxorubicin from peptide-drug conjugates by drug loading”. Journal of Controlled Release 191 (2014): 123-130.
  28. Tu Y and Zhu L. “Enhancing cancer targeting and anticancer activity by a stimulus-sensitive multifunctional polymer-drug conjugate”. Journal of Controlled Release 212 (2015): 94-102.
  29. Hill BD., et al. “Engineering Virus-like Particles for Antigen and Drug Delivery”. Current Protein and Peptide Science 19 (2018): 112-127.
  30. Lopez-Sagaseta J., et al. “Self-assembling protein nanoparticles in the design of vaccines”. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal 14 (2016): 58-68.
  31. Neek M., et al. “Protein-based nanoparticles in cancer vaccine development”. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 15 (2019): 164-174.
  32. Tarhini M., et al. “Protein-based nanoparticles: From preparation to encapsulation of active molecules”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 522 (2017): 172-197.
  33. Lohcharoenkal W., et al. “Protein nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for cancer therapy”. BioMed Research International 2014 (2014): 180549.
  34. Herrera Estrada LP and Champion JA. “Protein nanoparticles for therapeutic protein delivery”. Biomaterial Science 3 (2015): 787-799.
  35. Alemán JV., et al. “Definitions of terms relating to the structure and processing of sols, gels, networks, and inorganic-organic hybrid materials (IUPAC Recommendations 2007)”. Pure and Applied Chemistry 79 (2007): 1801-1829.
  36. Tahara Y and Akiyoshi K. “Current advances in self-assembled nanogel delivery systems for immunotherapy”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 95 (2015): 65-76.
  37. Sharma A., et al. “Nanogel—An advanced drug delivery tool: Current and future”. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology 44 (2016): 165-177.
  38. Akiyoshi K., et al. “Self-aggregates of hydrophobized polysaccharides in water. Formation and characteristics of nanoparticles”. Macromolecules 26 (1993): 3062-3068.
  39. Neamtu I., et al. “Basic concepts and recent advances in nanogels as carriers for medical applications”. Drug Delivery 24 (2017): 539-557.
  40. Iijima S. “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon”. Nature 354 (1991): 56-58.
  41. Reilly RM. “Carbon nanotubes: Potential benefits and risks of nanotechnology in nuclear medicine”. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine 48 (2007): 1039-1042.
  42. Mroz P., et al. “Functionalized fullerenes mediate photodynamic killing of cancer cells: Type I versus Type II photochemical mechanism”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 43 (2007): 711-719.
  43. Tegos GP., et al. “Cationic Fullerenes Are Effective and Selective Antimicrobial Photosensitizers”. NIH Public Access 12 (2011): 1127-1135.
  44. Bosi S., et al. “Antimycobacterial activity of ionic fullerene derivatives”. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 10 (2000): 1043-1045.
  45. Ji H., et al. “Antiviral activity of nano carbon fullerene lipidosome against influenza virus in vitro”. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 28 (2008): 243-246.
  46. Cai X., et al. “Polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C (60) (OH) (24) prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in an MPP (+) -induced cellular model of Parkinson’s disease”. Journal of Neuroscience Research 86 (2008): 3622-3634.
  47. Markovic Z and Trajkovic V. “Biomedical potential of the reactive oxygen species generation and quenching by fullerenes (C60)”. Biomaterials 29 (2008): 3561-3573.


Citation: Alisha Banafar., et al. “Forced Degradation Studies for Estimation of Finerenone by RP-HPLC Method". Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences 6.6 (2022): 24-32.


Copyright: © 2022 Alisha Banafar., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US