Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences (ASPS)(ISSN: 2581-5423)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 4

Overview on Lipid-based Nanoparticles: Preparations, Characterizations, and Properties

Harshil Parikh1, Manan Patel2,3* and Rigved Nagarkar2

1Teva Pharmaceutical Salt Lake City, USA
2University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, PA, USA
3Biolink Life Sciences, NC, USA

*Corresponding Author: Manan Patel, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Received: March 02, 2022; Published: March 30, 2022


Lipid based nanoparticles provide the prospect of developing novel treatments owing to their unique size related characteristics. The process of integrating medicines into nanomedicines provides a novel drug discovery concept that might be used for therapeutic targeting. As a result, these nanocarriers offer tremendous potential for achieving the objective of regulated and site-specific medication, and also have captivated the interest of researchers. As a result of their pharmacological and reversible characteristics, lipid molecules can reduce undesirable consequences and toxic effects of medication methods as contrasted to polymer counterparts. The research emphasizes the significance of nanocarriers in modifying medication drug release and pharmacokinetic characteristics if administered orally.

Keywords: Oral; Delivery; Nanoparticles; Size; Controlled Release


  1. P EKAMBARAM AAHS and KP. “Solid lipid nanoparticles- A review”. 2011 (2011): 80-102.
  2. Naseri N., et al. “Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers: Structure preparation and application”. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin 5 (2015): 305-313.
  3. Mandawgade SD and Patravale VB. “Development of SLNs from natural lipids: Application to topical delivery of tretinoin”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1-2 (2008): 132-138.
  4. 2015 pratama dan marlinda. “Solid lipid nanoparticles; a review”. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 11 (1967): 951-952. 4 (3): 5-48.
  5. Souto EB and Müller RH. “Lipid nanoparticles: Effect on bioavailability and pharmacokinetic changes”. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 197 (2010): 115-141.
  6. Schubert MA and Müller-Goymann CC. “Characterisation of surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): Influence of lecithin and nonionic emulsifier”. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics1-2 (2005): 77-86.
  7. Müller RH., et al. “Cytotoxicity of magnetite-loaded polylactide, polylactide/glycolide particles and solid lipid nanoparticles”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1 (1996): 85-94.
  8. Wissing SA., et al. “Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews9 (2004): 1257-1272.
  9. Reithmeier H., et al. “Development and characterization of lipid microparticles as a drug carrier for somatostatin”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1-2 (2001): 133-143.
  10. Severino P., et al. “Current State-of-Art and New Trends on Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN and NLC) for Oral Drug Delivery”. Journal of Drug Delivery 2012 (2012): 1-10.
  11. Mehnert W and Mader K. “Solid lipid nanoparticles Production, characterization and applications”. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 47 (2020): 165-196.
  12. Garud A., et al. “Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN): Method, Characterization and Applications”. International Current Pharmaceutical Journal 11 (2011): 384-393.
  13. Bunjes H., et al. “Influence of emulsifiers on the crystallization of solid lipid nanoparticles”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 7 (2003): 1509-1520.
  14. Eldem T., et al. “Optimization of Spray-Dried and -Congealed Lipid Micropellets and Characterization of Their Surface Morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy”. Pharmaceutical Research: An Official Journal of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 8 (1991): 47-54.
  15. Trotta M., et al. “Preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles by a solvent emulsification-diffusion technique”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1-2 (2003): 153-160.
  16. Hu FQ., et al. “Preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles with clobetasol propionate by a novel solvent diffusion method in aqueous system and physicochemical characterization”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1-2 (2002): 121-128.
  17. Wavers JW. “Preparation and Characterization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles-Based Gel for Topical Delivery”. Notes Greek Text Leviticus 2000 (2019): 314-330.
  18. Battaglia L., et al. “Solid lipid nanoparticles formed by solvent-in-water emulsion-diffusion technique: Development and influence on insulin stability”. Journal of Microencapsulation 7 (2007): 672-684.
  19. Curcio CA and Johnson M. “Structure, Function, and Pathology of Bruch’s Membrane”. Fifth Edit. Retina Fifth Edition. Elsevier Inc 1 (2012): 465-481.
  20. Pooja D., et al. “Characterization, biorecognitive activity and stability of WGA grafted lipid nanostructures for the controlled delivery of Rifampicin”. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 193 (2015): 11-17.
  21. Cortesi R., et al. “Production of lipospheres as carriers for bioactive compounds”. Biomaterials 11 (2002): 2283-2294.
  22. Garcês A., et al. “Formulations based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for cutaneous use: A review”. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 112 (2018): 159-167.
  23. He H., et al. “VB12-coated Gel-Core-SLN containing insulin: Another way to improve oral absorption”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1-2 (2015): 451-459.
  24. Lin C., et al. “Pulmonary delivery of triptolide-loaded liposomes decorated with anti-carbonic anhydrase IX antibody for lung cancer therapy”. Scientific Report1 (2017): 1-12.
  25. Chirio D., et al. “Positive-charged solid lipid nanoparticles as paclitaxel drug delivery system in glioblastoma treatment”. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics3 (2014): 746-758.
  26. Clemente N., et al. “Solid lipid nanoparticles carrying temozolomide for melanoma treatment. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2 (2018).
  27. Das S and Chaudhury A. “Recent advances in lipid nanoparticle formulations with solid matrix for oral drug delivery”. AAPS PharmSciTech1 (2011): 62-76.
  28. Wang T., et al. “Solvent injection-lyophilization of tert-butyl alcohol/water cosolvent systems for the preparation of drug-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles”. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces1 (2010): 254-261.
  29. Schubert MA and Müller-Goymann CC. “Solvent injection as a new approach for manufacturing lipid nanoparticles - Evaluation of the method and process parameters”. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics1 (2003): 125-131.
  30. Duong VA., et al. “Preparation of Ondansetron Hydrochloride-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Using Solvent Injection Method for Enhancement of Pharmacokinetic Properties”. Pharmaceutical Research 10 (2019).
  31. Nasiri F., et al. “Preparation, optimization, and in-vitro characterization of α-tocopherol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs)”. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 1 (2020): 159-171.
  32. Eleraky NE., et al. “Nanostructured lipid carriers to mediate brain delivery of Temazepam: Design and in vivo study”. Pharmaceutics5 (2020).
  33. Kimura N., et al. “Development of a Microfluidic-Based Post-Treatment Process for Size-Controlled Lipid Nanoparticles and Application to siRNA Delivery”. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 30 (2020): 34011-34020.
  34. Xie S., et al. “Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: Influences of fatty acids”. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces2 (2011): 382-387.
  35. Sharma S., et al. “Vitamin B6 Tethered Endosomal pH Responsive Lipid Nanoparticles for Triggered Intracellular Release of Doxorubicin”. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 44 (2014): 30407-30421.
  36. Shah M and Pathak K. “Development and statistical optimization of solid lipid nanoparticles of simvastatin by using 23 full-factorial design”. AAPS PharmSciTech2 (2010): 489-496.
  37. Mohammadi-Samani S., et al. “Piroxicam loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical delivery: Preparation, characterization and in vitro permeation assessment”. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 47 (2018): 427-433.
  38. Kang X., et al. “Magnesium lithospermate B loaded PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles for improved oral bioavailability”. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces 161 (20018): 597-605.
  39. Wang Q., et al. “Enhanced oral bioavailability and anti-gout activity of 6]-shogaol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1-2 (2018): 24-34.
  40. Sawant K., et al. “Cyclosporine A Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Optimization of Formulation, Process Variable and Characterization”. Current Drug Delivery 1 (2008): 64-69.
  41. Trapani A., et al. “Glutathione-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles based on Gelucire® 50/30: Spectroscopic characterization and interactions with fish cells. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 47 (2018): 359-366.
  42. Öztürk AA., et al. “Influence of glyceryl behenate, tripalmitin and stearic acid on the properties of clarithromycin incorporated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs): Formulation, characterization, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity”. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 54 (2019): 101240.
  43. Sathya S., et al. “α-Bisabolol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles attenuates Aβ aggregation and protects Neuro-2a cells from Aβ induced neurotoxicity”. Journal of Molecular Liquids 264 (2018): 431-441.
  44. Yokaichiya F., et al. “Effects of doxorubicin on the structural and morphological characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)”. Physica B: Condensed Matter 551 (2018): 191-196.
  45. Osborne DW., et al. “Determination of Particle Size and Microstructure in Topical Pharmaceuticals”. in The Role of Microstructure in Topical Drug Product Development, N. Langley, B. Michniak-Kohn, and D.W. Osborne, Editors. 2019, Springer International Publishing: Cham (2019): 89-106.
  46. Montasser I., et al. “Solid lipid nanoparticle-based calixn]arenes and calix-resorcinarenes as building blocks: Synthesis, formulation and characterization”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11 (2013): 21899-21942.
  47. Mishra DK., et al. “Engineering solid lipid nanoparticles for improved drug delivery: Promises and challenges of translational research”. Drug Delivery and Translational Research 4 (2012): 238-253.
  48. Plajnšek KT., et al. “A novel fluorescent probe for more effective monitoring of nanosized drug delivery systems within the cells”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1 (2011): 384-393.
  49. Tang K., et al. “Measurement for contact angle of iron ore particles and water”. ISIJ International3 (2018): 379-400.
  50. Jores K., et al. “Investigations on the structure of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by photon correlation spectroscopy, field-flow fractionation and transmission electron microscopy”. Journal of Control Release2 (2004): 217-227.
  51. Carrillo C., et al. “DNA delivery via cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs)”. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2 (2013): 157-165.
  52. Sharifi M., et al. “Plasmonic gold nanoparticles: Optical manipulation, imaging, drug delivery and therapy”. Journal of Control Release 311-312 (2019): 170-189.
  53. Zafar N., et al. “Cyclodextrin containing biodegradable particles: From preparation to drug delivery applications”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1-2 (2014): 351-366.
  54. Cho HJ., et al. “Surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of docetaxel: Enhanced intestinal absorption and lymphatic uptake”. International Journal of Nanomedicine1 (2014): 495-504.
  55. Ozaki KI., et al. “Histone deacetylase inhibitors enhance the chemosensitivity of tumor cells with cross-resistance to a wide range of DNA-damaging drugs”. Cancer Science 2 (2008): 376-384.
  56. Jain S., et al. “Polyelectrolyte stabilized multilayered liposomes for oral delivery of paclitaxel”. Biomaterials28 (2012): 6758-6768.
  57. Aljaeid BM and Hosny KM. “Miconazole-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: Formulation and evaluation of a novel formula with high bioavailability and antifungal activity”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 11 (2016): 441-447.
  58. Negi JS., et al. “Development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of lopinavir using hot self nano-emulsification (SNE) technique”. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1-2 (2013): 231-239.
  59. Baird JK. “Primaquine toxicity forestalls effective therapeutic management of the endemic malarias. Int Journal of Parasitology12 (2012): 1049-1054.
  60. Souza ALR De., et al. “In vitro evaluation of permeation, toxicity and effect of praziquantel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles against Schistosoma mansoni as a strategy to improve efficacy of the schistosomiasis treatment”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1 (2014): 31-37.
  61. Sowmya K., et al. “Overview of Modern and Traditional Techniques of Permeation Enhancement for Topical Drug Deliver”. Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences1 (2022): 44-54.
  62. Golan M., et al. “Conjugates of HA2 with octaarginine-grafted HPMA copolymer offer effective siRNA delivery and gene silencing in cancer cells”. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 109 (2016): 103-112.
  63. Gonçalves LMD., et al. “Development of solid lipid nanoparticles as carriers for improving oral bioavailability of glibenclamide”. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics16 (2016): 41-50.
  64. Llu KK., et al. “Covalent linkage of nanodiamond-paclitaxel for drug delivery and cancer therapy”. Nanotechnology31 (2010).
  65. Peng XH., et al. “Targeted delivery of cisplatin to lung cancer using ScFvEGFR-heparin- cisplatin nanoparticles”. ACS Nano1 (2011): 9480-9493.
  66. Guthi JS., et al. “MRI-visible micellar nanomedicine for targeted delivery to cancer cell”. Molecular BioSystems1 (2010): 32-40.
  67. Valodkar M., et al. “In vitro toxicity study of plant latex capped silver nanoparticles in human lung carcinoma cells”. Materials Science and Engineering: C 8 (2011): 1723-1728.


Citation: Manan Patel., et al. “Overview on Lipid-based Nanoparticles: Preparations, Characterizations, and Properties". Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences 6.4 (2022): 25-38 .


Copyright: © 2022 Manan Patel., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US