Butyl Cyclohexyl Phthalate (BCHP) Exposure Induces Oxidative Stress on Male Reproductive System
Elif Emine Bilal Duyar1, Cinel Koksal Karayildirim1*, Melih Dagdeviren1, Huseyin Aktug2, Nefise Ulku Karabay Yavasoglu1 and Altug Yavasoglu2
1Biology Department, Ege University, Science Faculty, Izmir, Turkey
2Histology and Embryology Department, Ege University, Medicine Faculty, Izmir, Turkey
*Corresponding Author: Cinel Koksal Karayildirim, Biology Department, Ege University, Science Faculty, Izmir, Turkey.
September 06, 2021; Published: January 12, 2022
Background and Aims: Phthalates member of toxic chemical material have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental toxicity. The study was performed to determine oxidative stress inducing potential in male mice reproductive system of Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate (BCHP).
Methods: Reproductive system toxicity of BCHP was evaluated according to OECD 407 test procedure. Mice were exposed to phthalate at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. After 28-day subacute toxicity test period, it was evaluated the effects of BCHP on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation activities, sperm morphologies and histopatological parameters.
Results: BCHP caused dose-dependent histopathological toxicity in the testes tissues. 28-days subacute toxicity study showed that epididymis weights induced significantly in the 200 and 400 mg/kg BCHP treated groups. The sperm count was reduced and the number of abnormal sperm was increased dose-dependenly. Statistically significant decreases in the SOD activities were determined in 200 and 400 mg/kg groups.
Conclusion: The results indicated that the BCHP cause severe damage to testicular tissue and disruption of spermatogenesis and induce oxidative stress. This is the first study in which BCHP has been shown toxicity on male reproductive system.
Keywords: Phthalate; Subacute Toxicity; Oxidative Stress; Sperm Morphology; Histopathological Changes
- Heudorfa U., et al. “Phthalates: Toxicology and exposure”. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 210 (2007): 623-634.
- Song P., et al. “Phthalate induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia fetida)”. Environment International 129 (2019): 10-17.
- Harris CA., et al. “The Estrogenic Activity of Phthalate Esters in vitro”. Environmental Health Perspective 105 (1997): 802-811.
- Pan LT., et al. “Dermal toxicity elicited by phthalates: Evaluation of skin absorption, immunohistology, and functional proteomics”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 65 (2014): 105-114.
- Latini G., et al. “Phthalate exposure and male infertility”. Toxicology 226 (2006): 90-98.
- Lehraiki A., et al. “Phthalates Impair Germ Cell Number in the Mouse Fetal Testis by an Androgen- and Estrogen-Independent Mechanism”. Toxicological Science 111 (2009): 372-382.
- Ahbab MA., et al. “In utero exposure to dicyclohexyl and din-hexyl phthalate possess genotoxic effects on testicular cells of male rats after birth in the comet and TUNEL assays”. Human and Experimental Toxicology 33 (2014): 230-239.
- Foster PMD., et al. “Effects of phthalate esters on the developing reproductive tract of male rats”. Human Reproduction Update 7 (2001): 231-235.
- Benjamin S., et al. “Achromobacter denitrificansSP1 efficiently utilizes 16 phthalate diestersand their downstream products through protocatechuate 3,4-cleavagepathway”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety1 (2016): 172-178.
- OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No: 407 (1995) Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France (1995).
- Lowry OH., et al. “Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 1 (1951): 265-275.
- Ohkawa H., et al. “Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction”. Analytical Biochemistry2 (1979): 351-358.
- Cao B., et al. “Evaluation of reproductive toxicity in rats caused by organic extracts of Jialing River water of Chongqing, China”. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology3 (2009): 357-365.
- Oishi S. “Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system”. Food and Chemical Toxicology12 (2002): 1807-1813.
- Adamkovicova M., et al. “Sperm motility and morphology changes in rats exposed to cadmium and diazinon”. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology1 (2016): 42.
- Nacar A., et al. “Investigation of the protective effect of erdosteine against cyclosporine-induced injury in rat liver with histological and biochemical methods”. Turkish Journal of Medical Science 45 (2015): 1390-1395.
- Xue Y., et al. “Repeated Intravenous Dose Toxicity of Di-Isononyl Phthalate in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats”. Toxicology and Risk Assessment1 (2019): 1-8.
- Yavaşoğlu NU., et al. “Induction of Oxidative Stress and Histological Changes in Liver by Subacute Doses of Butyl Cyclohexyl Phthalate”. Environmental Toxicology3 (2014): 345-353.
- Kwack SJ., et al. “Comparative toxicological evaluation of phthalate diesters and metabolites in Sprague-Dawley male rats for risk assessment. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A 72.21-22 (2009): 1446-1454.
- Vernet P., et al. “Antioxidant strategies in the epididymis”. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology1-2 (2004): 31-39.
- Aitken RJ and Roman SD. “Antioxidant systems and oxidative stress in the testes”. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 636 (2008): 154-171.
- Abarikwu SO., et al. “Changes in Sperm Characteristics and Induction of Oxidative Stress in the Testis and Epididymis of Experimental Rats by a Herbicide, Atrazine”. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 58 (2010): 874-882.
- Hutchison GR., et al. “Sertoli cell development and function in an animal model of testicular dysgenesis syndrome”. Biology of Reproduction2 (2008): 352-360.
- Creasy DM. “Pathogenesis of male reproductive toxicity”. Toxicologic Pathology 29 (2001): 64-76.