Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences (ISSN: 2581-883X)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 6

Insight into the COVID-19 Outbreak: Current Intervention Strategies

Mukesh M Mudgal1* and Mangesh M Mudgal2

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA
2Rudraksham Ayurvedic, International Health Care Center, Narendra Nagar, Nagpur, India

*Corresponding Author: Mukesh M Mudgal, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA.

Received: April 06, 2020; Published: May 21, 2020



The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on December 31, 2019 from Wuhan city of China. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 is an enveloped RNA virus, from the genus Betacoronavirus. As of April 5th, 2020 more than 1,235,730 cases and 67,195 deaths have been reported globally. This review article discuss the latest updates and essential information about the COVID-19 outbreak including the current pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical interventions.

Keywords: COVID-19; World Health Organization (WHO); Betacoronavirus



  1. National Center for immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), D. of V. D. Coronavirus | Human Coronavirus Types | CDC (2020).
  2. Van Doremalen N., et al. “Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1”. The New England Journal of Medicine (2020).
  3. Kampf G., et al. “Persistence of Coronaviruses on Inanimate Surfaces and Their Inactivation with Biocidal Agents”. Journal of Hospital Infection (2020).
  4. Wang J., et al. “High Temperature and High Humidity Reduce the Transmission of COVID-19”. SSRN Electron Journal (2020).
  5. Japanese Scientists Find New Coronavirus Transmission Route in Breakthrough Study (2020).
  6. Tisoncik JR., et al. “Into the Eye of the Cytokine Storm”. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews (2012).
  7. Article: Tips for Avoiding Coronavirus | OpEdNews (2020).
  8. Goldsmith CS., et al. “Ultrastructural Characterization of SARS Coronavirus”. Emerging Infectious Diseases (2004).
  9. Fehr AR and Perlman S. “Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis. In Coronaviruses: Methods and Protocols (2015).
  10. Chang CK., et al. “The SARS Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein - Forms and Functions”. Antiviral Research (2014).
  11. Neuman BW., et al. “A Structural Analysis of M Protein in Coronavirus Assembly and Morphology’. Journal of Structural Biology1 (2011): 11-22.
  12. Novel coronavirus structure reveals targets for vaccines and treatments | National Institutes of Health (NIH) (2020).
  13. NIH clinical trial of remdesivir to treat COVID-19 begins | National Institutes of Health (NIH) (2020).
  14. Sham HL., et al. “ABT-378, a Highly Potent Inhibitor of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease”. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1998).
  15. Dyall J., et al. “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Current Therapeutic Options and Potential Targets for Novel Therapies”. Drugs (2017).
  16. Rolain JM., et al. “Recycling of Chloroquine and Its Hydroxyl Analogue to Face Bacterial, Fungal and Viral Infections in the 21st Century”. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents4 (2007): 297-308.
  17. Coronavirus Resource Center - Harvard Health (2020).
  18. Chloroquine/ Hydroxychloroquine Prevention of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in the Healthcare Setting - Full Text View – Clinical Trials. (2020).
  19. Fujifilm Announces the Start of a Phase III Clinical Trial of Influenza Antiviral Drug Avigan (favipiravir) on COVID-19 in Japan and Commits to Increasing Production - MedNews (2020).
  20. Jin Z., et al. “The Ambiguous Base-Pairing and High Substrate Efficiency of T-705 (Favipiravir) Ribofuranosyl 5′-Triphosphate towards Influenza A Virus Polymerase”. PLoS One (2013).
  21. Coronavirus outbreak: Top coronavirus drugs and vaccines in development (2020).
  22. Stebbing J., et al. “COVID-19: Combining Antiviral and Anti-Inflammatory Treatments”. Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020).
  23. Hoffmann M., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor”. Cell2 (2020): 271-280.
  24. Fingolimod in COVID-19 - Full Text View – Clinical Trials (2020).
  25. Senanayake SL. “Drug Repurposing Strategies for COVID-19”. Future Drug Discovery (2020): 0010.
  26. The Efficacy and Safety of Thalidomide in the Adjuvant Treatment of Moderate New Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia - Full Text View – Clinical Trials (2020).
  27. HHS CDC. Implementation of Mitigation Strategies for Communities with Local COVID-19 Transmission (2020).


Citation: Mukesh M Mudgal and Mangesh M Mudgal. “Insight into the COVID-19 Outbreak: Current Intervention Strategies".Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences 4.6 (2020): 15-19.


Acceptance rate33%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.197

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US