Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences (ASPS)(ISSN: 2581-5423)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 5

Transition Metal Complexes of Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Trimethoprim with Cyclohexanone: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Computational Studies

Hussaini Garba1*, Jamila Bashir Yakasai2, Ibrahim Waziri3 and Ibraheem O Bisiriyu4

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
2National Water Resources Institute, Mando, Kaduna State, Nigeria
3Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
4Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

*Corresponding Author: Hussaini Garba, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

Received: March 31, 2020; Published: April 29, 2019



  In this study, Metal (II) Complexes of Mn (II), Fe (III), Co (II) and Ni (II) with Schiff base ligand derived from Trimethoprim and Cyclohexanone were synthesized and characterized using various physic-chemical techniques such as: solubility, conductivity, melting point determination, UV/Vis and Fourier transform infrared, 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. On the basis of these characterizations, a six coordinated octahedral geometry has been proposed for all the complexes. The Schiff base ligand and its complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic microbial isolate and compared with the parent drug. The antimicrobial activity results showed the following trend: metal complexes > Schiff base ligands > Parent drugs. This suggests potential antimicrobials agents with broad spectrum activity. Computational studies further revealed that M-Cl bond is responsible for the trend in antimicrobial properties among the complexes.

Keywords:Bacterial Resistance; Bacteria; Trimethoprim; Schiff Base; Complexes



  1. Zakeyah AA., et al. “Synthesis and antimicrobial studies of hydrazone derivatives of 4-[3-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-4-formyl-1H-pyrazol-1 yl]benzoic acid and 4-[3-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-4-formyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzoic acid”. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 28 (2018): 2914-2919.
  2. Golker Z., et al. “Bacteriophage therapy: a potential solution for the antibiotic resistance crisis”. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 2 (2014): 129-136.
  3. Friedrich MJ. “WHO survey reveals misconceptions about antibiotic resistance”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 315 (2001): 242.
  4. Read AF and Woods RJ. “Antibiotic resistance management”. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health1 (2014): 147.
  5. Viswanatha VK. “Off-label abuse of antibiotics by bacteria”. Gastrointestinal Microbiota 1 (2014): 3-4.
  6. Willyard C. “The drug-resistance bacteria that pose the greatest health treats”. Nature 543 (2017): 15.
  7. Sutcliffe JA. “Improving on nature; antibiotics that target the ribosome”. Current Opinion in Microbiology 5 (2005): 534-542.
  8. Robert P and Martina T. “Designing drugs that overcome antibacterial resistance: where do we stand and what should we do?” Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 8 (2015): 1-20.
  9. Henry FC and Frank DL R. “Waves of Resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the Antibiotic Era”. Nature Reviews Microbiology 9 (2009): 629-641.
  10. Mulvey MR., et al. “Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus”. Canada Emerging Infectious Diseases 11 (2005): 844-850.
  11. Ndahi NP., et al. “Complexes of Mn(II) and Fe (III) with Schiff bases Derived from Trimethoprim with Salicyldehyde and Benzaldehyde as Potential Antimicrobial Agents”. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research1 (2018): 53-59.
  12. World Health Organization (WHO). "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines". (2014).
  13. Masters PA., et al. “Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Revisited”. Acta Medica International 163 (2003): 402- 410.
  14. Ramlakhan S., et al. “Clinical Options for the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections in Children”. Journal of Clinical Medicines Insights Pediatrics 8 (2014): 31-37.
  15. Zheng Z and Gao WT. “Synthetic Studies on Optically Active Schiff-Base Ligands Derived from Condensation of 2-Hydroxyacetophenone and Chiral Diamines”. Molecules7 (2002): 511-516.
  16. Abdou SE., et al. “Synthesis, Characterization, and Anticancer Activity of New Metal Complexes Derived from 2-Hydroxy-3- (hydroxyimino)-4-oxopentan-2-ylidene) benzohydrazide”. Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications (2015).
  17. Ikechukwu PE and Peter AA. “Synthesis, Characterization, Anticancer, and Antioxidant Studies of Ru(III) Complexes of Monobasic Tridentate Schiff Bases”. Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications (2016).
  18. Bauer AW., et al. “Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method”. American Journal of Clinical Pathology4 (1966): 493-496.
  19. Aderoju AO and Sherifah WM. “Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of some Mixed Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Metal Complexese”. World Applied Sciences Journal 2 (2015): 336-342.
  20. Sunil J., et al. “Antibacterial Properties of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) Complexes Derived from Schifff Base Trimethoprim”. Der Pharma Chemical5 (2010): 329-336.
  21. Radanovic DD., et al. “Simple Synthetic Method and Structural Characteristics of (1, 3- Propanediaminetetraacetato) Cobalt(II) Complexes: Uniform Crystal Packing in A Series of Metal(II) Complexes with Propanediaminetetraacetate Ligand”. Poyhedron19 (2003): 2745-2753.
  22. Osowole AA. “Synthesis and Characterization of Some Tetradentate Schiff Base Complexes and Their Hetroleptic Analogues”. E-Journal of Chemistry1 (2008): 130-135.
  23. Shayma AS., et al. “Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Ligand Complexes of 8-Hydroxyquinoline and o-hydroxybenzylidene-1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-4-amino-3-pyrazolin-5-onewith Fe(II),Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) ions”. European Journal of Scientific Research 33 (2009): 702-709.
  24. Raman N., et al. “Synthesis and Characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff Base Complexes Derived From o-Phenylenediamine and Acetanilide”. Journal of Chemical Sciences 3(2001): 183-189.
  25. Demirezen N., et al. “Synthesis of Trimethoprim Metal Complexes: Spectral, Electrochemical, Thermal, DNA-Binding and Surface Morphology Studies”. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 94 (2012): 243-255.
  26. Xavier A and Srividhya N. “Synthesis and Study of Schiff Base Ligands”. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 11 (2014): 6-15.
  27. Contini G., et al. “Infrared Study of 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole and Two of its Derivatives Adsorbed on PbS”. The International Journal of Mineral Processing 1-4 (1997): 283-289.
  28. Peter AA and Omoruyi GI. “Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Studies of Pd(II)and Pt(II) Complexes of Some Diaminopyrimidine Derivatives”. Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications 1 (2013): 1-8.
  29. Gulcan M., et al. “MSynthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a New Pyrimidine Schiff Base and its Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Pt(II) and Pd(II) Complexes”. The Turkish Journal of Chemistry 36 (2012): 189-200.
  30. Raheem TM., et al. “Preparation, Characterization, and Antibacterial Properties of Mixed Ligand Complexes of L-leucine and Sulfamethoxazole (Antibiotic) with Mn(II),Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II),Cd(II)and Hg(II) ions”. Journal Advances in Physics Theories and Applications 27 (2014): 8-19.
  31. Al-amary HF. “Synthesis, Investigation of Some Mixed Ligand Chelates and Their Biological Activity”. M.Sc. Thesis, Benghazi: Garyounis University, Libya (2014).
  32. Adewuyi S., et al. “Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Surface and Catalytic Reactivity of Chitosan Supported Co(II) and Its Zerovalentcobalt Nanobiocomposite”. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials1 (2016): 114 -121.
  33. Adewuyi S., et al. “Zinc (II) Metal Ion Complexes of Chitosan: Toward Heterogeneous-active Catalyst for the Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate”. Ife Journal of Science3 (2015): 749 -754.
  34. Cotton FA and Wilkinson G. “Advanced Inorganic Chemistry”. 3rd Edition, Wiley, New York (1972): 880-881.
  35. Henri LKW., et al. “Synthesis and Antibacterial Studies of Schiff Base Complexes Derived from 2, 3-Diamino-Pyridine and o-vanilline”. Indian Journal of Chemistry 40 (2001): 999.
  36. Sengupta S. K., et al. “Synthesis, Structural and Biochemical Aspects of Titanocene and Zirconocene Chelates of Acetylferrocenyl Thiosemicarbazones”. Transition Metal Chemistry4(1998): 349-353.
  37. Devi TP and Singh RH. “Complexes of Nickel (II) with the Schiff Bases Derived from Condensation of Salicylaldehyde and bis-Ni (amuh)2Cl2”. Journal of Chemical Education 2 (2010): 266-270.
  38. Nikolaienko TY and Bulavin LA. “Localized orbitals for optimal decomposition of molecular properties”. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 119 (2018): 25798.
  39. Nikolaienko TY., et al. “JANPA: An open source cross-platform implementation of the Natural Population Analysis on the Java platform”. Computational and Theoretical Chemistry 1050 (2014): 15-22.


Citation: Hussaini Garba., et al. “Transition Metal Complexes of Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Trimethoprim with Cyclohexanone: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Computational Studies".Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences 4.5 (2020): 36-45.

Member In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2020.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US