Chiraz Regaieg1,3*, Ben thabet Afef1,3, Kolsi Nadia1,3, Amira Trigui2,3, Bouraoui Amira1,3, BEN HAMED Amel1,3, Manel Charfi1,3 and Hmida Nedia1,3
1Department of Neonatology, Hedi Chaker University Hospital, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
2Department of Ophtalmology, Habib Bourguiba University Hospital, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
3University of Medicine of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
*Corresponding Author: Chiraz Regaieg, Department of Neonatology, Hedi Chaker University Hospital, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia.
Received: January 20, 2023; Published: February 12, 2023
Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the leading avoidable cause of childhood blindness. It is an abnormal retinal vascular development in preterm, due to several risks’ factors.
Objectives: To evaluate the results of the screening program for ROP in the neonatal care unit of Sfax.
Methods: A retrospective study of all cases of ROP screened in the neonatal intensive care unit of Sfax (Tunisia) between January 2005 and December 2020. The screening program included all preterm under 32 weeks of gestation (GW) and/or having a birth weigh less than 1500 grams and all preterm under 34 GW with one of ROP risk factors.
Results: During the study period, 3644 newborns were examined for ROP at the age of 30 days (with an average of 243 exams/year). Twelve cases of ROP were diagnosed which 5 in 2005. The incidence was 0,22% of newborns at risk. The ROP was Stage V in 5 cases, Stage III in 3 cases, Stage II in 2 cases and Stage I in 2 cases. One of the stages III ROP cases progressed to a stage IV and another to a stage V due to a delay in treatment. The mean term was 30 weeks + 3 days [26-33 GW]. The mean weight was 1425 grams [970-2050 gr]. All newborns were hospitalized for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Seven required mechanical ventilation which was associated to exogenous surfactant administration in 6 cases. The mean duration of oxygen therapy was 12 days [2-57 days]. Severe sepsis associated to hemodynamic disorders were observed in 7 patients. The treatment was surgical in stage IV ROP. It was based on cryotherapy in stage III and stage II ROP. Stage I ROP was treated successfully by argon laser photocoagulation. For stage V ROP cases no treatment was proposed given the definitive vision loss.
Conclusion: The incidence of ROP in our unit decreased since the renovation of the department in 2006, with the generalization of cardiorespiratory monitoring and the acquisition of a blood gas measuring device allowing the measurement and control of oxygen therapy. Furthermore, the screening enables an early diagnosis and management, which improve the prognosis. Screening can be improved by using new technologies especially the Ret-cam.
Keywords: Screening; Retinopathy; Premature; Risk Factors
Citation: Chiraz Regaieg., et al. “Retinopathy of Prematurity: Findings After 15 Years of Screening in a Neonatal Care Unit in Tunisia". Acta Scientific Paediatrics 6.3 (2023): 16-20.
Copyright: © 2023 Chiraz Regaieg., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.