Diana Reis Monteiro*, Liliana Sá, Daniela Pinto and Gustavo Rocha
Department of Neonatology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto, Portugal and Department of Pediatric/Neonatology, Centro Hospitalar Entre o Douro e Vouga, Santa Maria da Feira, Portugal
*Corresponding Author: Diana Reis Monteiro, Department of Neonatology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto, Portugal and Department of Pediatric/Neonatology, Centro Hospitalar Entre o Douro e Vouga, Santa Maria da Feira, Portugal.
Received: August 16, 2022; Published: October 12, 2022
Renal cystic diseases are a diverse group of diseases that can manifest in utero, infancy, or throughout childhood and adulthood. They can appear as an isolated finding or as part of a syndrome and can affect one or both kidneys. Differential diagnosis often remains a challenge since numerous diseases can cause cystic kidney malformations and imaging patterns change over time.
We report a case of a 1-month-old female infant that was observed in a neonatology consultation for multiple renal cysts on the left kidney, first described in the prenatal ultrasound. Our patient was a full-term neonate, born by vaginal delivery, with a birth weight registered of 2865gr. The physical examination at the first appointment showed no abnormal findings. The first ultrasound evaluation performed after birth confirmed a left kidney with a small amount of undifferentiated renal parenchyma and several simple cysts, the largest with 43x28mm, suggestive of multicystic dysplastic kidney. The right kidney was described as normal. Laboratory tests showed normal values of hemoglobin, renal function and electrolytes. Additional investigation with abdominal and transfontanelar ultrasounds revealed no other malformations. Follow-up with serial ultrasonographic evaluation showed gradual reduction of the left kidney size as well as a growing right kidney showing compensatory enlargement.
From genetic syndromes to some non-hereditary forms of polycystic kidney diseases, in situations like the case presented, it is mandatory to consider all causes of multiple unilateral cysts with perinatal presentation. Recognition of such an extensive variety of renal cystic diseases is essential for early detection and start of treatment if needed. Although considered a benign condition, multicystic dysplastic kidney requires long-term follow-up to ensure that the contralateral kidney undertakes appropriate compensatory hypertrophy and to identify other associated anomalies. Routine monitoring should include serial ultrasound evaluation as well as blood pressure measurement, urinalysis, and kidney function studies, particularly in children who present contralateral abnormalities that are at greater risk for developing chronic kidney disease.
Keywords: Neonatal; Hypotonia; Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Citation: Diana Reis Monteiro., et al. “Clinical Approach to Multiple Congenital Renal Cysts". Acta Scientific Paediatrics 5.11 (2022): 07-11.
Copyright: © 2022 Diana Reis Monteiro., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.