Peripheral Neuropathies: State of the Art on Modern Use of Electrodiagnostic Examination in Guillain-Barrè Syndrome and Rehabilitative Implications in Children
Piero Pavone1, Giuseppe Costanza2, Giovanni Cacciaguerra2*, Francesco Pizzo2, Maria Grazia Pappalardo2, Silvia Marino3, Rita Chiaramonte4 and Michele Vecchio4
1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University Hospital “Policlinico-San Marco”, Italy
2Postgraduate Training Program in Pediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Italy
3Unit of Pediatrics and Pediatric Emergency, AOU “Policlinico”, PO “San Marco”, University of Catania, Italy
4Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Pharmacology, University of Catania, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Giovanni Cacciaguerra, Postgraduate Training Program in Pediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Italy.
October 08, 2021; Published: November 15, 2021
Introduction: Guillain-Barré syndrome is an immune-mediated segmentary peripheral polyneuropathy The different variants depend on the physio-pathogenic involved mechanism (predominantly demyelinating, the type of nerve damaged (predominantly motor) the antibody associations (IgM and IgG GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GQ1b, GT1b, LM1) Electrodiagnostic examination (EDX) can distinguish the type of involvement of the peripheral nerves, and the secondary compromise of the muscles.
Objective: The purpose of this review is to analyze the literature of the last 10 years about the most current descriptive and diagnostic applications of EDX in children, useful also to project rehabilitative program and to monitor the prognosis in pediatric patients.
Keywords: Electrodiagnosis; Guillain-Barre Syndrome; Peripheral Nervous System Diseases; Polyradiculoneuropathy
- Bourque PR., et al. “Autoimmune peripheral neuropathies”. Clinica Chimica Acta 449 (2015): 37-42.
- Sejvar JJ., et al. “Population incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Neuroepidemiology 362 (2011): 123-133.
- Bourque PR., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid total protein in Guillain-Barré syndrome variants: correlations with clinical category, severity, and electrophysiology”. Journal of Neurology 267 (2020): 746-751.
- Rajabally YA., et al. “Electrophysiological diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome subtype: could a single study suffice?” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 86 (2015): 115-119.
- Chiba A., et al. “Serum anti-GQ1b IgG antibody is associated with ophthalmoplegia in Miller Fisher syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome: clinical and immunohistochemical studies”. Neurology 43 (1993): 1911-1917.
- Ito M., et al. “Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis and Fisher syndrome form a continuous spectrum: clinical analysis of 581 cases”. Journal of Neurology 255 (2008): 674-682.
- Yuki N., et al. “Autoantibodies to GM1b and GalNAc-GD1a: relationship to Campylobacter jejuni infection and acute motor axonal neuropathy in China”. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 164 (1999): 134-138.
- Chémali KR and Tsao B. “Electrodiagnostic testing of nerves and muscles: when, why, and how to order”. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 72 (2005): 37-48.
- McComas AJ., et al. “Electrophysiological estimation of the number of motor units within a human muscle”. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 34 (1971): 121-131.
- Brown WF. “A method for estimating the number of motor units in thenar muscles and the changes in motor unit count with ageing”. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 35 (1972): 845-852.
- García A., et al. “Peripheral motor and sensory nerve conduction studies in normal infants and children”. Clinical Neurophysiology 111 (2000): 513-520.
- Roberts NM and Wertsch JJ. “Measuring sensory nerve action potential electrical power”. Muscle Nerve 41 (2010): 318-323.
- Nadeem AS., et al. “Analysis of F-wave parameters in normal infants and children”. Annals of Saudi Medicine 22 (2002): 181-185.
- Sathya GR., et al. “F wave index: A diagnostic tool for peripheral neuropathy”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 145 (2017): 353-357.
- Kang PB. “Pediatric Nerve Conduction Studies and EMG”. The Clinical Neurophysiology Primer Edited by: A. S. Blum and S. B. Rutkove. (2007): 369-389.
- Shefner JM and Gooch CL. “Motor unit number estimation”. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 14 (2003): 243-260.
- Hadden RD., et al. “ Electrophysiological classification of Guillain-Barré syndrome: clinical associations and outcome. Plasma Exchange/Sandoglobulin Guillain-Barré Syndrome Trial Group”. Annals of Neurology 44 (1998): 780-788.
- Roodbol J., et al. “Recognizing Guillain-Barre syndrome in preschool children”. Neurology 76 (2011): 807-810.
- Roodbol J., et al. “Diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome in children and validation of the Brighton criteria”. Journal of Neurology 264 (2017): 856-861.
- Karalok ZS., et al. “Guillain-Barré syndrome in children: subtypes and outcome”. Child's Nervous System 34 (2018): 2291-2297.
- Estrade S., et al. “Prognostic factors for the sequelae and severity of Guillain-Barré syndrome in children”. Muscle Nerve 60 (2019): 716-723.
- Kılıç B., et al. “Clinical, electrophysiological findings and evaluation of prognosis of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome”. Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 61 (2019): 200-208.
- Barzegar M., et al. “Predictive factors for achieving independent walking in children with Guillain-Barre syndrome”. Paediatric Research 82 (2017): 333-339.