Acta Scientific PAEDIATRICS (ISSN: 2581-883X)

Research Article Volume 3 Issue 11

Paediatric Bladder Stones in Kenya. A Single Institution Study

Jumbi T* and Lessan J

Paediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Specialized Surgery, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

*Corresponding Author: Jumbi T, Paediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Specialized Surgery, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

Received: September 13, 2021 ; Published:



Objective: This study describes the patterns of etiology and presentation of bladder stones in children managed at tertiary facility in Kenya with an aim of highlighting the magnitude of disease.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 20 patients with bladder calculi was done between 2013 and 2020. Data that was collected from the patients’ medical records included age and sex distribution; seasonal and geographical distribution; patterns of presentation and etiology.

Results: All patients recruited were male with a mean age of 4.85 years. There was no significant trend in the seasonal and geographical distribution of bladder calculi. Patients with acute urinary retention presented the earliest. Notably, the patients with hematuria in the background of lower urinary tract symptoms presented earlier than those without hematuria. The majority of bladder stones were primary in etiology (n = 12), However 7 patients had secondary bladder stones, resulting from Vesico-ureteric reflux (n = 4), posterior urethral valves (n = 1) and anorectal malformations with recto-urethral fistulas (n = 2).

Conclusion: This study reveals a general inclination towards delayed diagnosis in children presenting with bladder stones especially in the absence of acute urinary retention and hematuria. Additionally, congenital anomalies of the urinary tract should be suspected in patients with bladder stones particularly in presence of urinary tract dilatation.

Keywords: Etiology; Presentation; Bladder Stones; Paediatric; Urolithiasis; Kenya



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Citation: Jumbi T and Lessan J. “Paediatric Bladder Stones in Kenya. A Single Institution Study”. Acta Scientific Paediatrics 4.11 (2021): 33-37.


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