Intelligence Quotient of Primary School Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder in Nigeria
Ekemini Joseph Hogan*, Echey Ijezie, Mkpouto Udeme Akpan and Kevin Bassey Edem
Department of Paediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Ekemini Joseph Hogan, Department of Paediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria.
Received: May 10, 2021; Published: July 05, 2021
Background: ADHD is the most common and persistent neuro-behavioral disorders of childhood, affecting children in both the developed and developing world. Children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have high intelligence quotients (IQ) in some studies while others have reported a low IQ in association with ADHD. No known studies investigating the relationship between ADHD and IQ were found for Nigeria and there is a paucity of such studies in Sub Saharan Africa.
Objective: To compare intelligent quotient of children with ADHD and children without ADHD.
Methods: The Draw A Person Test (DAPT) was administered to determine the IQ of 146 pupils aged 6 - 12 years recently diagnosed with ADHD using the Vanderbilt Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale. Pupils were drawn from 12 primary schools in Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria. The DAPT was also administered to 146 age/sex matched controls without ADHD.
Result: The mean IQ score of the pupils with ADHD was significantly lower than that of controls (IQ score of pupils with ADHD = 74.7 ± 29.2, Controls = 103.5 ± 33.0, p = 0.0001). Fifty-four percent of the pupils with ADHD who had low IQ had the hyperactive subtype of ADHD.
Conclusion: The mean IQ of the pupils with ADHD was significantly lower than that of controls. Policies should be put in place to implement the screening test for ADHD under the school health programme for the early identification of pupils with ADHD.
Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Intelligence Quotients (IQ); Draw A Person Test (DAPT)
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