Acta Scientific Paediatrics (ISSN: 2581-883X)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 6

Main Clinical Sequels in Patients Affected by Covid-19: A Systematic Review

Lysandro Pinto Borges1*, Adriana Gibara Guimarães1, Fernanda Camargo Mendonça de Araujo1, Jessiane Bispo de Souza1, Daniela Raguer Valadão Souza2, Aline Fagundes Martins2, José Melquiades de Rezende Neto2, Luis Eduardo Cuevas3 and Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel4

1Department of Pharmacy and Clinical Analysis, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Sergipe, Brazil
2Department of Education in Health, Federal University of Sergipe, Lagarto, Sergipe, Brazil
3Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
4Department of Medicine, Federal, Post-Graduate Programs in Parasitic Biology and Health Sciences, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil

*Corresponding Author: Lysandro Pinto Borges, Department of Pharmacy and Clinical Analysis, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Sergipe, Brazil.

Received: March 01, 2021; Published: May 15, 2021



In view of the appearance of several sequelae due to infection by COVID-19 and the need to seek knowledge about this new disease, this review aimed to identify the main clinical sequelae in patients affected by COVID-19. The literature search was performed in the PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Science Direct databases and were included in a total of 16 studies. The main sequelae found were cardiac, neurological and pulmonary, other sequelae were also found such as kidney injury, gastrointestinal symptoms, joint pain, fatigue, excessive sweating and hair loss, however, in smaller proportions. These data provide a health team, during specific treatments of COVID-19, to avoid these sequelae, enabling health professionals to develop new treatment strategies, as well as more assertiveness in the diagnosis and thereby optimize the survival of the patient.

Keywords: COVID-19; Kidney Injury; Gastrointestinal Symptoms; Joint Pain; Fatigue



  1. World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard (2021).
  2. Iftimie S., et al. “First and second waves of coronavirus disease-19: A comparative study in hospitalized patients in Reus, Spain”. Med Rxiv (2020): 1.
  3. Epidemiology Working Group for NCIP Epidemic Response, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. “The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China”. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi2 (2020): 145-151.
  4. Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization. Epidemiological Alert: Complications and sequelae of COVID-19 (2020).
  5. Moher D., et al. “Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement”. PLoS Medicine 7 (2009): e1000097.
  6. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination University of York. Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness: CRD’s guidance for carrying out or commissioning reviews”. NHS Cent Rev Dissem. (2001).
  7. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Technical and scientific documents (2020).
  8. Koutroumanidis M., et al. “Alpha coma EEG pattern in patients with severe COVID-19 related encephalopathy”. Clinical Neurophysiology 1 (2021): 218-225.
  9. Von der Thüsen JH., et al. “Case report: a fatal combination of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with extensive pulmonary microvascular damage in COVID-19 pneumonia”. Journal of Hematopathology (2020): 4-8.
  10. Xiong Q., et al. “Clinical sequelae of COVID-19 survivors in Wuhan, China: a single-centre longitudinal study”. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 1 (2020): 89-95.
  11. Shi P., et al. “Clinical characteristics of imported and second-generation coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Shaanxi outside Wuhan, China: A multicentre retrospective study”. Epidemioly and Infections 238 (2020): 1-10.
  12. Tay MRJ., et al. “Covert Subclinical Neurocognitive Sequelae during the Rehabilitation Course of Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019”. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1 (2020): 39-43.
  13. Zhao Y Miao., et al. “Follow-up study of the pulmonary function and related physiological characteristics of COVID-19 survivors three months after recovery”. EClinical Medicine 25 (2020): 100463.
  14. Daher A., et al. “Follow up of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease sequelae”. Respiratory Medicine 174 (2020): 106197.
  15. Navel V., et al. “Haemorrhagic conjunctivitis with pseudomembranous related to SARS-CoV-2”. The American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports 19 (2020): 100735.
  16. Remsik J., et al. “Inflammatory leptomeningeal cytokines mediate delayed COVID-19 encephalopathy”. Med Rxiv Preprint Server for Health Sciences (2020).
  17. Yu M., et al. “Prediction of the development of pulmonary fibrosis using serial thin-section ct and clinical features in patients discharged after treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia”. Korean Journal of Radiology 6 (2020): 746-755.
  18. Pisano TJ., et al. “Pulmonary Embolism after Acute Spinal Cord Injury and COVID-19”. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 11 (2020): 982-985.
  19. Fang Y., et al. “Pulmonary fibrosis in critical ill patients recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia: Preliminary experience”. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 10 (2020): 2134-2138.
  20. Lv D., et al. “Pulmonary function of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus induced-pneumonia: A retrospective cohort study”. Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery (2020).
  21. Liu D., et al. “The pulmonary sequelae in discharged patients with COVID-19: A short-term observational study”. Respiratory Research 125 (2020): 1-7.
  22. Viola P., et al. “Tinnitus and equilibrium disorders in COVID-19 patients: preliminary results”. Eur Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 23 (2020): 1-6.
  23. Hartman WR., et al. “Unusual Cardiac Presentation of COVID-19 and Use of Convalescent Plasma”. Case Reports in Cardiology (2020): 1-4.
  24. Hoffmann M., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor”. Cell 2 (2020): 271-280.
  25. Joanna Briggs Institute. “JBI critical appraisal checklist for analytical cross sectional studies”. Adelaide: The Joanna Briggs Institute (2016).
  26. Tay MZ., et al. “The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention. Nature Reviews Immunology”. Nature Research 20 (2020): 363-374.
  27. McGonagle D., et al. “Immune mechanisms of pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy in COVID-19 pneumonia. The Lancet Rheumatology”. Lancet Publishing Group7 (2020): e437-e445.
  28. Gupta A., et al. “Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Nature Medicine”. Nature Research7 (2020): 1017-1032.
  29. Puntmann VO., et al. “Outcomes of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients Recently Recovered from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)”. JAMA Cardiology11 (2020): 1265-1273.
  30. Chang WT., et al. “Cardiac Involvement of COVID-19: A Comprehensive Review”. American Journal of the Medical Sciences1 (2021): 14-22.
  31. Brucki SMD., et al. “Neurological complications in COVID-19 patients from Latin America 440 (2020): 1-4.
  32. Wu Y., et al. “Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity”. Academic Press Inc 87 (2020): 18-22.
  33. Diao B., et al. “Human kidney is a target for novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection”. Med Rxiv (2020).
  34. Nogueira SÁR., et al. “Renal changes and acute kidney injury in COVID-19: A systematic review”. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 2 (2020): 112-117.
  35. Ye Q., et al. “The mechanism and treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with COVID-19. American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology”. American Physiological Society2 (2020): 245-252.
  36. Disser NP., et al. “Musculoskeletal Consequences of COVID-19”. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 14 (2020): 1197-1204.


Citation: Lysandro Pinto Borges., et al. “ Main Clinical Sequels in Patients Affected by Covid-19: A Systematic Review”. Acta Scientific Paediatrics 4.6 (2021): 42-50.


Acceptance rate33%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.695

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US