The Relationship between Anemia in Pregnancy and the Demographic Variables among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Diwan Polyclinic: A Cohort Study in Oman
Hind Alharassi1, Nawal Alhadhrami1 and Zainab Al-Mukhaini2*
1Registered Nurse, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Diwan Polyclinic, Muscat, Oman
2Senior Consultant, Community-Pediatrician, Diwan Polyclinic, Muscat, Oman
*Corresponding Author: Zainab Al-Mukhaini, Senior Consultant, Community-Pediatrician, Diwan Polyclinic, Muscat, Oman.
Received: March 04, 2021; Published: May 07, 2021
Background: Pregnancy-related anemia is a serious health problem worldwide and carries high risk of morbidity and mortality for mother and fetus alike. No national data on anemia in pregnancy in Oman.
Aim: This study is to explore the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in Oman and its relationship to different demographic features to enable delivering optimum patient care.
Design: A retrospective quantitative study conducted for a cohort of pregnant ladies attending Diwan polyclinic-Muscat in Sultanate of Oman in 2015 looking at the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy and its relation to obstetric (gravidity and parity) and non-obstetric (age, education, employment, adherence to iron supplementation, BMI, nutritional history) demographic variables.
Method: A total of 1065 pregnant ladies attendee in year 2015. After identifying anemic ladies using WHO cut off point (Hb < 11.0 g/dL) at and after applying exclusion criteria (inherited blood disorder), the sample size was 169. Only 129 out of 169 were reached.
Questionnaires were distributed to participants after gaining verbal consent. Part A was about personal demographic data and was completed by participants while part B was clinical demographic data and was completed by researchers.
Results: Data was processed by SPSS (22). Average age was (29.45 ± 5.33). The prevalence of anemia was 16%. There was significant negative correlation between hemoglobin and gravidity ([r(129) = -0.312, P < 0.05) and between hemoglobin level and parity (r(129) = -0.287, P < 0.05) but no statistically significant relationship between hemoglobin level and other demographic variables.
Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy is 16%. Gravidity and parity are significant factors leading to anemia in pregnancy.
Keywords: Oman; Anemia; Pregnancy; Prevalence; Nutrition; Factors; Gravidity; Parity
- World Health Organization (WHO) web site (2016).
- American Society of Hematology website (2020).
- Daru J., et al. “Risk of maternal mortality in women with severe anaemia during pregnancy and post partum: a multilevel analysis”. The Lancet Global Health5 (2018): e548-554.
- Seshan V., et al. “Can gestational anemia be alleviated with increased awareness of its causes and management strategies? implications for health care services”. Oman Medical Journal4 (2018): 322.
- Afifi M. “Anemia in pregnancy at South Sharqiya health centers, Oman”. The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association1-2 (2003): 39-54.
- Musaiger AO. “Iron deficiency anaemia among children and pregnant women in the Arab Gulf countries: the need for action”. Nutrition and Health3 (2002): 161-171.
- Amine EK. “Bahrain nutrition status survey”. Abu-Dubi: UNICEF, Gulf Area Office (1980).
- Al-Farsi YM., et al. “Effect of high parity on occurrence of anemia in pregnancy: a cohort study”. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 1 (2011): 7.
- Noronha JA., et al. “Anemia in pregnancy-consequences and challenges: a review of literature”. Journal of South Asian Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology1 (2012): 64-70.
- Al-Haddabi R., et al. “Obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage pregnant women attending a tertiary teaching hospital in Oman”. Oman Medical Journal6 (2014): 399.
- Mahfouz A., et al. “Anemia among pregnant women in the Asir region, Saudi Arabia: an epidemiologic study”. Send to Southeast Asian Journal Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1 (1994): 84-87.
- Rasheed P., et al. “Anemia in pregnancy: A study among attendees of primary health care centers”. Annals of Saudi Medicine6 (2008): 449-452.
- Alkhasawneh EM., et al. “Determinants of Compliance with Iron Supplementation Among Pregnant Women in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman”. International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases4 (2020): 203.
- Garzon S., et al. “Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy: Novel Approaches for an Old Problem”. Oman Medical Journal5 (2020): e166.
- De Benoist B., et al. “Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005; WHO Global Database of anaemia.
- Qin Y., et al. “Anemia in relation to body mass index and waist circumference among Chinese women”. Nutrition Journal1 (2013): 1-3.
- Lee HS., et al. “Iron status and its association with pregnancy outcome in Korean pregnant women”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition9 (2006): 1130-1135.
- Dawood HS., et al. “Iron deficiency anemia among pregnant Arab women in Kuwait”. The Journal of the Kuwait Medical Association2 (1990): 167-172.
- Hassan R., et al. “Anemia and iron status of Malay women attending an antenatal clinic in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia”. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health5 (2005): 1304.
- Aikawa R., et al. “Risk factors for iron-deficiency anaemia among pregnant women living in rural Vietnam”. Public Health Nutrition4 (2006): 443-448.
- Ayoya MA., et al. “Determinants of anemia among pregnant women in Mali”. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 1 (2006): 3-11.
- Brabin BJ., et al. “An analysis of anemia and pregnancy-related maternal mortality”. The Journal of Nutrition2 (2001): 604S-15S.
- UNU/WHO. Iron deficiency anemia: assessment, prevention, and control”. Geneva. World Health Organization (2001).
- Galloway R., et al. “Women's perceptions of iron deficiency and anemia prevention and control in eight developing countries”. Social Science and Medicine4 (2002): 529-544.
- Sifakis S and G Pharmakides. "Anemia in pregnancy”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1 (2000): 125-136.
- Imai K. “Parity-based assessment of anemia and iron deficiency in pregnant women”. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology6 (2020): 838-841.
- Uche-Nwachi EO., et al. “Anaemia in pregnancy: associations with parity, abortions and child spacing in primary healthcare clinic attendees in Trinidad and Tobago”. African Health Sciences 1 (2010): 66-70.