A Comparative Analysis of the Serum Electrolytes, Urea and Creatinine Profile of Children on Diuretic Therapy for Cardiac Anomalies-related Heart Failure
Petronila Tabansi1* and Onubogu UC2
1Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
2Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Medical Sciences, Rivers State University, Rivers State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Petronila Tabansi, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Received: April 15, 2021; Published: April 23, 2021
Introduction: In Nigeria, children with acquired and congenital heart diseases (CHD) lack timely access to corrective surgeries due to scarcity of cardiac surgical centers and high cost of care; hence they are placed on diuretic therapy for prolong periods for symptomatic relief of the ensuing heart failure. Electrolyte imbalances such as hypokalemia and hyponatremia are known complication of diuretic therapy and have an adverse effect on morbidity and mortality of these children. Considering the risk posed by diuretics, and the inherent risk for renal injury due to hypoperfusion from heart failure, it becomes imperative to monitor their electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels for early intervention and a better outcome.
Aim: To determine the serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine values of children with cardiac pathologies in heart failure and make comparison with healthy controls.
Methodology: This was a prospective case-control study of children with cardiac pathologies on diuretic therapy for heart failure and their age and sex matched healthy controls. Biodata, echocardiography diagnoses and blood samples for serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine were obtained and comparison made.
Results: There were 83 (50%) Subjects and 83 healthy Controls with age range from 2 days to 16 years. Majority of the study population were less than 1year of age. Acyanotic CHD was the commonest cardiac pathology detected in 55 (66.3%), while acquired heart diseases constituted 3.6% of cases. Subjects had significantly lower levels of sodium (p = 0.0001), potassium (p = 0.0001) and bicarbonate (p = 0.004); and higher levels of urea (p = 0.014) and creatinine (p = 0.002). Among Subjects, the Mean sodium and bicarbonate levels were lowest in those with cardiomyopathies while Mean potassium level was lowest in those with cyanotic CHD. There were significant intergroup differences in Mean serum creatinine (p = 0.000).
Conclusion: Children on diuretic therapy for heart failure had comparatively lower levels of serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine
Keywords: Cardiac Pathologies; Diuretics; Heart Failure; Serum Electrolytes; Urea and Creatinine
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