Acta Scientific Paediatrics (ISSN: 2581-883X)

Research ArticleVolume 4 Issue 5

Re-Emergence of Meningococcal Meningitis W135 in Togo: Description of the Epidemic in Children

Foli Yvon Agbeko1,2*, Mawouto Fiawoo1,3, Magnoulelen Nzonou4, Mawaba Peleke Hilim5, Bawoubadi Wangala6, Manani Hemou2, Fidèle Comlan Dossou6, Sollim Talboussouma7, Rachel Bayahou Kérékou2, Homba Daké Batalia3, Rollin Arnaud Djomaleu3, Kokouvi Evenyo Abalo3, Mazama Pakoudjaré2, Edem Koffi Djadou1,3 and Komi Assogba8

1Département de Pédiatrie, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Lomé, Togo
2Service de Pédiatrie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus, Lomé, Togo
3Service de Pédiatrie, CHU Sylvanus Olympio, Lomé, Togo
4Service de Pédiatrie, Hôpital de Bè, Lomé, Togo
5Direction Préfectoral de la Santé de Sotouboua, Sotouboua, Togo
6Centre Hospitalier Régional de Sokodé, Sokodé, Togo
7Service de Pédiatrie, CHU Kara, Kara, Togo
8Département de Neurologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Lomé, Togo

*Corresponding Author: Foli Yvon Agbéko, Département de Pédiatrie, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Lomé, Togo.

Received: March 15, 2021; Published: April , 2021

Citation: Foli Yvon Agbeko., et al. “Re-Emergence of Meningococcal Meningitis W135 in Togo: Description of the Epidemic in Children”. Acta Scientific Paediatrics 4.5 (2021): 24-28.

Abstract

Background: Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis are common in several african countries, including Togo. In northern Togo, part of the "meningitis belt", the A and C serogroups was the primary causal agents. The objective of this work was to estimate frequency of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in childhood in hospital admissions during the 2016 epidemic in Togo, to describe clinical and bacteriological features, and to measure the extent of meningococcal serogroup W135 among children.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional, multi-centre study, carried out among children aged 0 to 15 years, hospitalised for ABM between 1st January and 31st March 2016 in the four district hospitals of the Central Region in Togo. The operational case definitions are taken from the WHO reference document.

Results: The overall hospital frequency among children was 4.80% for suspected meningitis case, 2.86% for probable cases and 1.55% for confirmed cases. Children (0 - 15 years) accounted for 63.60% of patients hospitalised for ABM. The M/F sex ratio of children was 1.42 and the mean age was 6.51 years (7 days - 15 years) with 59.56% (81/136) beyond to 5 years. The hospitalisations occurred in February-March (97.1%). Chief presentation was high fever (77.20%) and headache (39.97%). Meningeal signs were present in 51.97%. Apart from the negative results (59.26%) on direct examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), meningococcus was the confirmed germ in 90.91%. The serogroup W135 was isolated in 55.00% and the serogroup A in 32.50%. The overall case-fatality rate was 9.55%.

Conclusion: Meningococcus W135 was the agent responsible for the 2016 epidemic in Togo. Children were mostly affected. The tetravalent meningococcal A+C+Y+W135 vaccination should be instituted in Northern Togo, primarily in children under 15 years of age.

Keywords: Meningitis; Neisseria meningitidis; W135; Children; Togo

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Copyright: © 2021 Foli Yvon Agbeko., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



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