Acta Scientific Pharmacology

Review Article Volume 2 Issue 8

Tuberculosis: An Overview and Review of Literature

Surya Kant1, Veenita Mitta2, Anil Kumar Mavi3, Rachna Chaturvedi4, Pooja Singh1*

1Department of Respiratory Medicine, KGMU, Lucknow, India
2Department of Microbiology, Ram Manohar Lohiya Institute of Sciences, India
3Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest University of Delhi, India

*Corresponding Author: Pooja Singh, Research Scholar, Department of Respiratory Medicine, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India.

Received: May 17, 2021; Published: July 31, 2021


Tuberculosis Is a major bluster to humanity resist to progress in health-care systems and the widespread weapon of TB control programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated 10.4million individuals had TB, but only 6 million cases had been reported to the WHO [1]. Extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) has an increasing rate in Indian population. The reason remains largely unknown. To understanding of the demographic and microbial characteristics of EPTB in the Indian population would extend the knowledgebase of EPTB and allow us to develop better strategies to control tuberculosis (TB). EPTB is one of the major reasons for under diagnoses. Tuberculosis (TB) pandemics increase morbidity, mortality and frequency of opportunistic infections. According to the WHO Global tuberculosis report 2020, Extra pulmonary Involvement can occur in isolation or along with a pulmonary cases focus as in the case of patients with multiple tuberculosis (TB). The lately human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has outcome in changing epidemiology pandemic.

Keywords: Tuberculosis (TB); PCR; Treatment; Pathogenesis


  1. World Health Organization. Definitions and reporting framework for tuberculosis: 2013 revision (updated December 2014). Geneva: World Health Organization (2013).
  2. Islam MS., et al. “Prevalence of Tuberculosis: Present Status and Overview of Its Control System in Bangladesh”. International Journal of Life-Sciences Scientific Research6 (2017): 1471-1475.
  3. main_text.pdf
  4. Dolin GL., et al. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed., Philadelphia, PA; Churchill Livingstone (2011): 250-300.
  5. Campbell IA and Bah-Sow O. “Pulmonary tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment”. British Medical Journal 7551 (2006): 1194-1197.
  6. Gupta B K., et al. “Role of Cerebrospinal fluid Adenosine deaminase levels estimation in diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis”. JIMA 111 (2013): 603-608.
  7. Vinay Bharat., et al. “Pleural fluid Adenosine deaminase activity- Can it be a diagnostic biomarker?” IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 5 (2013): 41-46.
  8. Gahlot G., et al. “A Correlation of Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Activity and Lipid Peroxidant (MDA) in Serum and Pleural Fluid for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis”. International Journal of Life-Sciences Scientific Research 3 (2017): 1063-1069.
  9. Sunita Singh., et al. “Primary Renal Tuberculosis Presented as Giant Cyst at Lower Pole of Kidney”. International Journal of Life-Sciences Scientific Research4 (2017): 1148-1150.
  10. Prabhu SR., et al. “Tuberculosis ulcer of the tongue: Report of case”. Journal of Oral Surgery 36 (1978): 384-386.
  11. Kamala R., et al. “Primary tuberculosis of the oral cavity”. Indian Journal of Dental Research 22 (2011): 835-838.
  12. Khammissa RAG., et al. “Primary Oral Tuberculosis as an Indicator of HIV Infection”. Pathology Research International (2011): 1-4.
  13. Wood NH., et al. “Tuberculosis part 1: pathophysiology and clinical manifestation”. South African Dental Association Journal6 (2011): 270-273.
  14. Tarannum Yasmin and Krishan Nandan. “Correlation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Positive Patients and its Association with CD4 Count”. International Journal of Life-Sciences Scientific Research6 (2016): 733-736.
  15. WHO Tuberculosis Report (2017).
  16. Kolokotronis A., et al. “Oral tuberculosis”. Oral Disease 2 (1996): 242-243.
  17. Sharma SK and Mohan A. “Extrapulmonary tuberculosis”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 120 (2004): 316-353.
  18. Dogra SS., et al. “Tuberculosis of Oral Cavity: A Series of One Primary and Three Secondary Cases”. Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery 3 (2014): 275-279.
  19. Canadian Thoracic Society and The Public Health Agency of Canada and Licensors. Canadian tuberculosis standards. 7th ed. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada (2013).
  20. Lee Jy. “Diagnosis and Treatment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis”. Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 78 (2015): 47-55.
  21. World Health Organization. “Guidelines for the programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis”. Geneva: World Health Organization (2008).
  22. Ruslami R., et al. “Intensified regimen containing rifampicin and moxifloxacin for tuberculous meningitis: an open-label, randomized controlled phase 2 trial”. Lancet Infectious Disease 13 (2013): 27-35.


Citation: Pooja Singh., et al. “Tuberculosis: An Overview and Review of Literature".Acta Scientific Pharmacology 2.8 (2021): 64-68.


Copyright: © 2020 Pooja Singh., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate36%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 20, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US