Motor-Vehicle Accidents Victims in Khartoum-Sudan; Identification and Analysis of
Related Risk Factors, Safety Measures, and Injury Severity
Safi Saeed ECFMG LMCC CCFP*, Amina Wahbi ECMFG LMCC CCFP,
Nader M Abdulazeez MD(Ortho) MRCS(Ed), Shareef Nada MD(Ortho)
LMCC MRCS(Ed) and Dalia Abuzeid MRCP(UK) LMCC CCFP
*Corresponding Author: Safi Saeed
April 18, 2023; Published: May 26, 2023
Background: Road traffic accidents in Khartoum have been increasing dramatically along with tremendous rise in deaths in the previous past years, unfortunately with a simultaneous continuous increase in the import of vehicles.
Objective: The general aim of this study is to provide a reliable analysis of Motor Vehicle accidents in Khartoum, Sudan.
Methodology: A Hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at different centers in Khartoum State. The study sample was 385 patients exposed to traffic accidents. Data was collected using a Data Sheet filled between April 2020 and March 2021.
Results: The mean injury severity score was 7.6 ± 8.9 with 230(59.7%) fall within not severe range (< 8) and 155(40.3%) (≥8). The reported most common causes in terms of human errors, mechanical causes, obstruction by others and accidental, were excessive speeding 121(31.4%), mechanical defects 17(4.4%), improper overtakes/cuts 57(14.8%) and other recklessness or negligence by drivers 49(12.7%) respectively. Effective seat belt where available for only 43.6% of the victims, yet only 4.9% of these victims applied it. Effective air bags were available for only 26% of the victims.
Conclusion: Significant association was found between injury severity score and variables of age, gender, class, occupation, seat, conditions of the accident, location, time, causes and availability of belts (P < 0.05).
Keywords:Road Transport; World Health Organization; Motor-Vehicle
- Rivara FP., et al. “Injury prevention. First of two parts”. The New England Journal of Medicine8 (1997): 543-548.
- Odero W., et al. “Road traffic injuries in the developing countries: a comprehensive review of epidemiological studies”. Journal of Tropical Medicine and International Health5 (1997): 445-460.
- Søderlund N and Zwi AB. “Traffic-related mortality in industrialized and less developed countries”. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation2 (1995): 175-182.
- Astrom J S., et al. “Signatures of Four Generations of Road Safety Planning in Nairobi City, Kenya”. In: Journal of Eastern African Research and Development l20 (2006): 186-201.
- Lie GH and Baker SP. “A comparison of injury death rates in China and United States 1986”. American Journal of Public Health5 (1991): 605-609.
- WHO, Global Status Report on Road Safety; Time for Action (2009).
- United Nation Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, (2011).
- World Health Organization. A 5-year Health Organisation Strategy for Road Traffic Injury Prevention. Geneva Switzerland. Retrieved October 3, 2002 from Norwegian University of Science and Technology Library Database (2011).
- WHO, Pedestrians, cyclists among main road traffic crash victims. Half of 1.27 million people who die in road traffic crashes every year are pedestrians, motorcyclists and cyclists, finds new WHO study. News release (2009).
- Yankson IK., et al. “Reporting on road traffic injury: content analysis of injuries and prevention opportunities in Ghanaian newspapers” (2010).
- Global Road Safety Facility, Africa: Scaling-up Efforts to Address the Road Safety Challenge (2012).
- Iteke O., et al. “Road traffic accidents and posttraumatic stress disorder in an orthopedic setting in south-eastern Nigeria: a controlled study” (2012).
- Pierce Q and Maunder P. “Road and Traffic Authority Statistical report “Road Traffic Accidents in NSW-1997”. (Motor Accidents Authorities of NSW (1998).
- Paden M. “World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention”. World Health Organisation, Geneva (2004).
- McCoy GF., et al. “Incidence and consequences of ejection in motor vehicle accidents”. BMJ6658 (1988): 1244-1245.
- Pathirana S., et al. “Pattern of fractures in road traffic accident victims admitted to the accident service wards of the national hospital of Sri Lanka”. (2011).
- American National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Effectiveness of occupant protection systems and their use: third report to Congress. Washington DC: US Department of Transportation, December, 1996.
- Carter Howard and A C Mace. “The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amun”. New York: Cooper Square Publishers, (1963).
- Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. From the World Wide Web.
- Aggarwal KK., et al. “Pattern and distribution of injuries in fatal road traffic accident cases”. Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology 1 (2009): 71-75.
- Hajen A and Ehiri JE. “Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries”. Journal of the National Medical Association 1 (2006): 73-82.
- Mackie PJ. “Cost Benefit Analysis of Transport Infrastructure Projects: United Nations Publications”. (2003).
- “ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS: THE HIDDEN EPIDEMIC”. International Development Matters (2012).
- Global Economic Burden of Non-communicable Diseases. A report by the World Economic Forum and the Harvard School of Public Health September (2011).
- Atamo MA. “Safety assessment of freeway merging and diverging influence areas based on conflict analysis of simulated traffic”. University of Colorado, Colorado (2012).
- Jha N., et al. “Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases: A study from South India’. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 29 (2004): 20-24.
- World Health Organizations (WHO). World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention (2004).
- McKnight AJ and Bahouth GT. “Analysis of large truck rollover crashes”. Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine 52 (2008): 281-288.
- Hakkanen H and Summala H. “Fatal traffic accidents among trailer truck drivers and accident causes as viewed by other truck drivers”. Accident Analysis and Prevention2 (2001): 187-196.
- Khorashadi A., et al. “Differences in rural and urban driver-injury severities in accidents involving large trucks: an exploratory analysis”. Accident Analysis and Prevention5 (2005): 910-21.
- Rajalin S. “The connection between risky driving and involvement in fatal accidents”. Accident Analysis and Prevention5 (1994): 555-562.
- Summala H., et al. “Passing when visibility obscured: can we predict accident involvement from one single traffic maneuver?” Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 1986; SAGE Publications (1986): 249-250.
- Schmucker U., et al. “Accidents, illness and injuries involved in road haulage: consequences for medical care and prevention”. Unfallchirurg 11 (2012): 1022-1030.
- National Road Safety Coordination Office, Overview of the Road safety activities in Ethiopia (2006).
- Zhao S. “Rapid Motorization and Road Traffic Accidents in China”. In Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Transportation Research (2007).
- Zhao S. “Road Traffic Accidents in China”. International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences2 (2009): 125-127.
- Peng C., et al. “An Empirical Study of the Urban Traffic Accident Causes with Correspondence Analysis Method”. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Chinese Transportation Professionals, (2010): 1299-306.
- Schmucker U, ., et al. “Accidents, illness and injuries involved in road haulage: consequences for medical care and prevention”. Unfallchirurg 11 (2012): 1022-1030.
- , et al. “Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among drivers in Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia”. BMC Research Notes 4.535 (2011).
- Arnold PK., et al. “Hours of work, and perceptions of fatigue among truck drivers”. Accident Analysis and Prevention4 (1997): 471-477.
- Feyer AMW. “Managing driver fatigue in the long-haul road transport industry: interim report of national research programme”. In: Hartley LR, editor. Fatigue and Driving. London: Taylor and Francis (1995): 22-32.
- Heaton K. “Truck driver hours of service regulations: the collision of policy and public health”. Policy, Politics and Nursing Practice 6.4 (2005): 277-284.
- Adams-Guppy J and Guppy A. “Truck driver fatigue risk assessment and management: a multinational survey”. Ergonomics8 (2003): 763-779.
- Iversen H and Rundmo T. “Attitudes towards Traffic Safety, Driving Behaviour and Accident Involvement among the Norwegian Public”. Ergonomics5 (2004): 555-572.
- Abdel-Aty M., et al. “An Assessment of the Effect of Driver Age on Traffic Accident Involvement Using Log-Linear Models”. Accident Analysis and Prevention6 (1998): 851-861.
- Hiselius L. “Estimating the Relationship between Accident Frequency and Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Traffic Flows”. Accident Analysis and Prevention6 (2004): 985-992.
- Bener A., et al. “Road Traffic Fatalities in Qatar, Jordan and the UAE: Estimates Using Regression Analysis and the Relationship with Economic Growth”. East Mediterranean Health Journal3 (2010): 318-323.
- Zeng XH and Gao Y. “An Optimized Algorithm for Advanced Vehicle Anti-Lock Braking System”. Advanced Materials Research 791 (2013): 1489-1492.
- World Health Organization. “Global Status Report on Road Safety Time for Action”. World Health Organization, Geneva (2009).
- Shen X., et al. “Analysis on tank truck accidents involved in road hazardous materials transportation in China”. Traffic Injury Prevention 15 (2013): 762-768.