Acta Scientific Orthopaedics (ISSN: 2581-8635)

Case Report Volume 6 Issue 6

Axillary Nerve Palsy Following Intramuscular COVID-19 Vaccine: A Case Report

Gary Ulrich1* Kameron Kraus1 and David Rich MS2

1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA
2Eclipse Orthopaedics LLC, Warsaw, IN, USA

*Corresponding Author: Gary Ulrich, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

Received: April 17, 2023; Published: May 22, 2023

Abstract

Tibial malrotation represents a complication of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. Tibial malrotation has been described as ≥ 10 degrees and the incidence varies from 0 to 41% in the literature. The effect of tibial malrotation on patient outcome ranges from being asymptomatic and having no complications to issues with cosmesis, gait kinematics, joint contact pressures, and osteoarthritis in adjacent joints. Tibial malrotation can be measured with a physical exam, CT scan, or fluoroscopy. In this review, we discuss the literature with regards to the effect of tibial malrotation on patient outcome as well as review methods to measure tibial rotation.

Keywords:Tibial Malrotation; Tibial Torsion; Tibial Intramedullary Nailing; Tibial Fractures

References

  1. Boucher Michael., et al. “Three-dimensional assessment of tibial malunion after intramedullary nailing: a preliminary study”. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma7 (2002): 473-483.
  2. Gregory Paul and Roy Sanders. "The treatment of closed, unstable tibial shaft fractures with unreamed interlocking nails”. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®315 (1995): 48-55.
  3. Krettek Christian Peter Schandelmaier and Harald Tscherne. "Nonreamed interlocking nailing of closed tibial fractures with severe soft tissue injury”. Clinical orthopaedics and Related Research315 (1995): 34-47.
  4. Prasad CVR., et al. “CT assessment of torsion following locked intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures”. Injury7 (1999): 467-470.
  5. Puloski, S., et al. “Rotational malalignment of the tibia following reamed intramedullary nail fixation”. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma7 (2004): 397-402.
  6. Wiss Donald A and William B Stetson. "Unstable fractures of the tibia treated with a reamed intramedullary interlocking nail”. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®315 (1995): 56-63.
  7. Krettek Ch., et al. “Intraoperative control of axes, rotation and length in femoral and tibial fractures technical note”. Injury29 (1998): 29-39.
  8. Theriault Benoit Alexis F Turgeon and Stéphane Pelet. "Functional impact of tibial malrotation following intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures”. JBJS22 (2012): 2033-2039.
  9. Jafarinejad Adel Ebrahimpour., et al. “Malrotation following reamed intramedullary nailing of closed tibial fractures”. Indian Journal of Orthopaedics46 (2012): 312-316.
  10. Holler Jordan T and Utku Kandemir. "Intraoperative fluoroscopy for correcting rotational malalignment after fixation of tibial shaft fracture: A case report”. JBJS Case Connector3 (2021): e21.
  11. Sullivan Matthew Kelsey Bonilla and Derek Donegan. "Malrotation of Long Bones”. Orthopedic Clinics3 (2021): 215-229.
  12. Theriault Benoit Alexis F Turgeon and Stéphane Pelet. "Functional impact of tibial malrotation following intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures”. JBJS22 (2012): 2033-2039.
  13. Van der Schoot DKE., et al. “Degenerative changes at the knee and ankle related to malunion of tibial fractures: 15-year follow-up of 88 patients”. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume5 (1996): 722-725.
  14. Say Ferhat and Murat Bülbül. "Findings related to rotational malalignment in tibial fractures treated with reamed intramedullary nailing”. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery134 (2014): 1381-1386.
  15. Van der Werken Chr and RK Marti. "Post-traumatic rotational deformity of the lower leg”. Injury1 (1983): 38-40.
  16. Hicks Jennifer., et al. “The effect of excessive tibial torsion on the capacity of muscles to extend the hip and knee during single-limb stance”. Gait and Posture4 (2007): 546-552.
  17. Schwartz Michael and Gaio Lakin. "The effect of tibial torsion on the dynamic function of the soleus during gait”. Gait and Posture2 (2003): 113-118.
  18. Nicod L. "Clinical results and prognosis of axial defects of the lower extremity in adults following faulty healing of a fracture of the lower extremity”. Zeitschrift fur Unfallmedizin und Berufskrankheiten. Revue de Medecine des Accidents et des Maladies Professionelles1 (1966): 44-65.
  19. Snow Martyn. "Tibial torsion and patellofemoral pain and instability in the adult population: current concept review”. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine14 (2021): 67-75.
  20. Svoboda MAJ Steven J., et al. “The effects of tibial malrotation on the biomechanics of the tibiotalar joint”. Foot and Ankle International2 (2002): 102-106.
  21. Yazdi Hamidreza., et al. “The effect of tibial rotation on knee medial and lateral compartment contact pressure”. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy24 (2016): 79-83.
  22. Yagi Tomonori. "Tibial torsion in patients with medial-type osteoarthrotic knees”. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (1976-2007)302 (1994): 52-56.
  23. Kahn Kevin M and Rodney K Beals. "Malrotation after locked intramedullary tibial nailing: three case reports and review of the literature”. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery3 (2002): 549-552.
  24. Laasonen EM., et al. “Tibial torsion measured by computed tomography”. Acta Radiologica. Diagnosis4 (1984): 325-329.
  25. Jend H-H., et al. “Measurement of tibial torsion by computer tomography”. Acta Radiologica. Diagnosis3A (1981): 271-276.
  26. Jakob RP., et al. “Tibial torsion calculated by computerised tomography and compared to other methods of measurement”. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume2 (1980): 238-242.
  27. Liodakis Emmanouil., et al. “Reliability of the assessment of lower limb torsion using computed tomography: analysis of five different techniques”. Skeletal Radiology41 (2012): 305-311.
  28. Clementz Bengt-Göran. "Assessment of tibial torsion and rotational deformity with a new fluoroscopic technique”. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (1976-2007)245 (1989): 199-209.
  29. Keppler Alexander M., et al. “Intraoperative torsion control using the cortical step sign and diameter difference in tibial mid-shaft fractures”. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery(2021): 1-9.
  30. Inci Fatih., et al. “Intraoperative rotation control in closed intramedullary nailing in tibia diaphyseal fractures: a prospective, randomised study”. Acta Orthopaedica Belgica 4 (2018): 461-468.

Citation

Citation: Gary Ulrich., et al. “Tibial Malrotation Following Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Fractures”.Acta Scientific Orthopaedics 6.6 (2023): 58-62.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Gary Ulrich., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate33%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In



News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US